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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission file number: 001-35362

 

TRIPADVISOR, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

80-0743202

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

400 1st Avenue

Needham, MA 02494

(Address of principal executive office) (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:

(781) 800-5000

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common stock

TRIP

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No

The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $1,915,177,508 based on the closing price on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on such date.

 

Class

 

Outstanding Shares at February 10, 2023

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share

 

128,164,615 shares

Class B common stock, $0.001 par value per share

 

12,799,999 shares

 

Documents Incorporated by Reference

The registrant intends to file a proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the close of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. Portions of such proxy statement are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

2

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

2

 

 

 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

10

 

 

 

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

25

 

 

 

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

25

 

 

 

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

25

 

 

 

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

25

 

 

PART II

 

26

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

26

 

 

 

Item 6.

[Reserved]

27

 

 

 

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

28

 

 

 

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

47

 

 

 

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

50

 

 

 

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

105

 

 

 

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

105

 

 

 

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

107

 

 

 

 

 

Item 9C.

 

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

 

107

 

 

PART III

 

107

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

107

 

 

 

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

107

 

 

 

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

107

 

 

 

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

107

 

 

 

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

107

 

 

PART IV

 

108

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules

 

108

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

113

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

114

 

 

ii


 

We refer to Tripadvisor, Inc. and our wholly-owned subsidiaries as “Tripadvisor,” “Tripadvisor group,” “the Company,” “us,” “we” and “our” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. The statements contained in this Annual Report that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. The following words, when used, are intended to identify forward-looking statements: “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “project,” “target,” “result,” “should,” “will,” and similar expressions which do not relate solely to historical matters. We caution investors that any forward-looking statements in this report, or which management may make orally or in writing from time to time, are based on management’s beliefs and on assumptions made by, and information currently available to, management. Such statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions and are not guarantees of future performance, which may be affected by known and unknown risks, trends, uncertainties and factors that are beyond our control. Some of the risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements are more fully described in Part I. Item 1A. "Risk Factors." Moreover, we operate in a rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for management to predict all such risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all such risk factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We caution you that, while forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs when we make them, they are not guarantees of future performance and are impacted by actual events when they occur after we make such statements. We expressly disclaim any responsibility to update our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Investors should also refer to our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for future periods and current reports on Form 8-K as we file them with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), and to other materials we may furnish to the public from time to time through Current Reports on Form 8-K or otherwise.

 

 

 

 

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PART I

 

Item 1. Business

Overview

The Tripadvisor group operates as a family of brands with a purpose of connecting people to experiences worth sharing. Our vision is to be the world’s most trusted source for travel and experiences. The Company operates across three reportable segments: Tripadvisor Core, Viator, and TheFork. We leverage our brands, technology platforms, and capabilities to connect our large, global audience with partners by offering rich content, travel guidance products and services, and two-sided marketplaces for experiences, accommodations, restaurants, and other travel categories.

Tripadvisor Core’s purpose is to empower everyone to be a better traveler by serving as the world’s most trusted and essential travel guidance platform. Since Tripadvisor’s founding in 2000, the Tripadvisor brand has developed a relationship of trust and community with travelers and experience seekers by providing an online global platform for travelers to discover, generate, and share authentic user-generated content (“UGC”) in the form of ratings and reviews for destinations, points-of-interest (“POIs”), experiences, accommodations, restaurants, and cruises in over 40 countries and over 20 languages across the world. As of December 31, 2022, Tripadvisor offered more than 1 billion user-generated ratings and reviews on nearly 8 million experiences, accommodations, restaurants, airlines, and cruises. Tripadvisor’s online platform attracts one of the world’s largest travel audiences, with hundreds of millions of visitors in 2022.

Viator’s purpose is to bring more wonder into the world—to bring extraordinary, unexpected, and forever memorable experiences to more people, more often, wherever they are traveling. In doing so, Viator elevates tens of thousands of businesses, large and small. Viator delivers on its purpose by enabling travelers to discover and book iconic, unique and memorable experiences from experience operators around the globe. Our online marketplace is comprehensive and easy-to-use, connecting millions of travelers to the world’s largest supply of bookable tours, activities and attractions—over 300,000 experiences from more than 50,000 operators as of December 31, 2022. Viator is a pure-play experiences online travel agency (“OTA”) singularly focused on the needs of both travelers and operators with the largest supply of bookable experiences available to travelers.

TheFork’s purpose is to deliver happiness through amazing dining experiences. TheFork delivers on its purpose by providing an online marketplace that enables diners to discover and book online reservations at more than 55,000 restaurants in 12 countries, as of December 31, 2022, across the UK, western and central Europe, and Australia. TheFork has become an urban, gastronomic guide with a strong community that offers more than 20 million restaurant reviews.

The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative impact on the travel and hospitality industries and, consequently, adversely and materially affected our business, results of operations, liquidity and financial condition during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020. In 2022, we generally experienced a travel demand recovery fueled by the continued easing of government restrictions globally and increasing consumer travel demand. We believe that consumers will continue to seek connection with others, discover new places, and experience new things through travel. We believe this sustained demand, combined with an ongoing need to make informed decisions, creates significant long-term growth opportunities for our business.

Our Industry and Market Opportunity

We are one of the world’s largest online travel companies; however, our consolidated annual revenue in 2022 of nearly $1.5 billion represents less than one percent of total worldwide travel spending, which highlights the potential size of our global market opportunity. Phocuswright, an independent travel, tourism and hospitality research firm, estimated global travel spending, exclusive of experiences and dining, at approximately $1.6 trillion in 2020 prior to the onset of COVID-19. In December 2022 Phocuswright estimated global travel spending will reach approximately $1.4 trillion by 2024, with an expected increasing share booked through online channels each year.

 

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We believe that we are a compelling leader in the global experiences industry and well positioned to capture increased share in a large and growing market that is estimated to reach more than $275 billion by 2025 according to Arival’s October 2022 report (the “Arival Report”), a leading research provider on the in-destination experiences industry. Moreover, we believe we are poised to benefit from increased online adoption in the global experiences industry. While online penetration in experiences remains nearly a third below other major travel categories, such as hotel accommodations, the anticipated total size of the online experiences market will continue to expand, and is expected to surpass pre-pandemic levels by 2023, according to the Arival Report, as travelers become increasingly more comfortable making last-minute bookings online, operators continue to shift online in order to more efficiently adhere to evolving pandemic regulations, and international travel returns. In addition, OTAs are the fastest growing channel in the travel experiences market and are expected to undergo significant growth going forward, with the OTA channel expected to experience a compounded annual growth rate (“CAGR”) of 62% from 2020 to 2025 according to the Arival Report.

Based on information in Euromonitor's February 2022 report, a leading provider of global business intelligence, market research data and analysis, we estimate the full-service European restaurants industry may reach approximately $250 billion by 2025. In addition, based on this same data, this industry is exhibiting a similar trend as the experiences industry in terms of online adoption; the majority of restaurant reservation bookings still take place offline, but an increasing share is booked through online channels each year. We believe that we are still early in the global shift in consumer adoption towards booking experiences and restaurants online, which provides an exciting future market opportunity for our business.

Our Business Strategy

The Tripadvisor group operates in a unique position in the travel and experiences ecosystem:

Large, global, and growing addressable markets including travel, experiences, and digital advertising;
A large, global, and engaged audience making meaningful contributions that reinforces a relationship of trust and community; and
A wealth of high-intent data that comes from serving our audience of travelers and experience seekers at different points along their journey - whether they are engaging on our platforms for inspiration on their next experience, planning a trip, or making a purchasing decision.

The Tripadvisor group is united in a shared purpose and vision, but operate different value creation strategies for each segment. We manage priorities and levels of investment based upon factors that include the size and maturity of each segment, the size and maturity of the addressable market, growth opportunities, and competitive positioning, among other factors.

In our Tripadvisor Core segment, we offer a compelling value proposition to both travelers and partners across a number of key categories that include accommodations, experiences, and media, among other categories. This value proposition is delivered through a collection of durable assets that we believe is difficult to replicate: a trusted brand, authentic UGC, a large community of contributors, and one of the largest global travel audiences. Our strategy in this segment is to leverage these core assets as well as our technology capabilities to provide travelers with a compelling user experience that helps travelers make the best decisions in each phase of their travel journey, including pre-trip planning, in-destination, and post-trip sharing. We intend to drive new traveler acquisition and repeat audience engagement on our platform by offering meaningful travel guidance solutions and services that reduce friction in the traveler journey and create a deeper, more persistent relationship with travelers. We evaluate investment opportunities across data, product, marketing, and technology that we believe will improve the monetization of our audience through deeper engagement, which, in turn, we expect will drive more value to our partners.

In our Viator and TheFork segments, we provide two-sided marketplaces that connect travelers and diners to operators of bookable experiences and restaurants, respectively. Within our Viator segment, we are investing in growth, future scale, and market share gains to accelerate our market leadership position, while improving booking unit economics that provide visibility to sustainable future profitability. This means driving awareness and higher

 

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quality audience engagement, which we believe will drive greater repeat behavior, more direct traffic, and translate into improved unit economics over time. Our investments on both sides of our marketplace, as well as in our core offerings, are intended to deliver a differentiated value proposition that will drive sustainable market leadership as our partners, operators, and travelers find themselves in an increasingly competitive marketplace environment. Similarly, in TheFork segment, we are also investing in growth, future scale, and market share gains. Our investments are focused on continuing to grow both our restaurant base and our diner base by offering innovative tools and features on our platform, and through continued awareness of our brand.

We expect to drive growth across the Tripadvisor group through organic investment in data, product, marketing and technology to further enhance the value we deliver to travelers and partners across our brands, platforms, and reportable segments. In addition, we may accelerate growth inorganically by opportunistically pursuing strategic acquisitions.

Our Business Models

We manage our Tripadvisor Core segment primarily through the following revenue sources and related business models:

Tripadvisor-branded Hotels Revenue. The largest source of Tripadvisor Core segment revenue is generated from click-based advertising on our hotel meta platform (formerly referred to as our hotel auction), which consists primarily of contextually-relevant booking links to partner websites, which predominantly include OTAs and hotels. Click-based advertising is generally priced on a cost-per-click (“CPC”) basis, with payments from partners determined by the number of clicks generated on a commerce link multiplied by the CPC rate for each particular click. CPC rates are determined in a dynamic, competitive auction bidding process. We also generate click-based advertising revenue on a cost-per-action (“CPA”) basis, with payments from partners determined by a contractual commission rate based on a traveler click generated on our platform that ultimately results in a hotel booking and stay via the partners’ websites.

We provide additional business-to-business (“B2B”) offerings to hotels and related accommodation partners that deliver other unique opportunities to further promote, advertise, and operate their businesses as well as merchandise their inventory on our platform. These include a subscription-based advertising solution, with payments determined by a contractual fee and time duration, or other CPC-based advertising services through hotel sponsored placements on our platform.

Tripadvisor-branded Display and Platform Revenue. We offer endemic and non-endemic advertisers unique opportunities to promote their brands primarily through display-based advertising placements across our brands on our platform. Our advertising clients are predominantly direct suppliers of hotels, airlines and cruises, as well as destination marketing organizations (“DMOs”), OTAs, and other travel related businesses. Display-based advertising placements are predominantly sold on a cost per thousand impressions (“CPM”) basis.
Tripadvisor Experiences and Dining Revenue. We merchandise, on the Tripadvisor platform, bookable experiences available on Viator and bookable dining reservations available on TheFork and earn affiliate marketing commission revenue on bookings that are driven by our platform, which are fulfilled by Viator and TheFork, respectively. These transactions generate intercompany (intersegment) revenue which is eliminated on a consolidated basis. The nature and economics of these transactions are consistent with the Viator segment and TheFork segment, as described below.

We provide additional B2B offerings to restaurant partners that deliver other unique opportunities to further promote, advertise, and operate their businesses as well as merchandise their businesses on our platform. These offerings can be subscription-based, with payments determined by a contractual fee and time duration, or CPC-based advertising services through restaurant sponsored placements on our platform.

 

4


 

Other Revenue. We provide travelers additional offerings across various other travel categories, including alternative accommodations (e.g., short-term vacation rentals), cruises, flights, and rental cars. We provide these offerings across a collection of brands that complement and reinforce our segment strategy of providing differentiated guidance that helps travelers reduce friction and make better decisions. Our alternative accommodation rentals platform (formerly referred to as vacation rentals) is a two-way marketplace that connect travelers with owners and operators of short-term rental properties, generating commission revenue from both the traveler and the property owner for each booking we facilitate across our branded platforms. Our cruise, flight, and rental cars offerings generate revenue primarily through click-based and display-based advertising, as described above.

Our Viator segment offers travelers a comprehensive online marketplace that provides access to over 300,000 experiences and over 50,000 experience operators. These experiences are instantly bookable online in over 190 countries. Our business model relies on the success of travelers and operators who join our marketplace and generate consistent bookings over time. As operators become more successful on our platform and as travelers return over time, we benefit from the recurring activity on our marketplace. We generate revenue through commissions for each booking transaction we facilitate directly and indirectly through our platform. Through Viator, we power traveler experience bookings on behalf of third-party distribution partner websites, including the Tripadvisor platform as well as many of the world’s major OTAs, airlines, hotels, online and offline travel agencies, and other prominent content and eCommerce brands. For the majority of experience bookings, we collect the full amount charged to the traveler at the time of booking and remit the operator’s portion after the booked experience occurs, which contributes to positive working capital before the traveler completes the experience.

TheFork segment offers travelers and diners a comprehensive online marketplace that provides access to more than 55,000 restaurants to discover and book reservations in 12 countries across the UK, western and central Europe, and Australia. We primarily generate revenue for each booking reservation we facilitate on our platform, calculated on a per seated diner fee basis and paid for by the restaurant partner. We also generate revenue on a subscription basis from restaurant partners by providing, for a fee, access to premium online reservation booking software and related services offerings to help them more effectively and efficiently manage their business.

Seasonality

Consumers' travel expenditures have historically followed a seasonal pattern. Correspondingly, travel partner advertising investments, and therefore our revenue and operating profits, have also historically followed a seasonal pattern. Our financial performance tends to be seasonally highest in the second and third quarters of a given year, which includes the seasonal peak in consumer demand, including traveler accommodation stays, and travel experiences taken, compared to the first and fourth quarters, which represent seasonal low points. In addition, during the first half of the year, experience bookings typically exceed the amount of completed experiences, resulting in higher cash flow related to working capital, while during the second half of the year, particularly in the third quarter, this pattern reverses and cash flows from these transactions are typically negative.

Certain factors may impact our typical seasonal fluctuations, which may include any significant shifts in our business mix or adverse economic conditions that could result in future seasonal patterns that are different from historical trends. For example, the negative impact to our business from COVID-19 materially affected our historical trends at varying levels during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, while these trends significantly improved during the year ended December 31, 2022, resulting in increased revenues, and working capital and operating cash flow more akin to typical historical seasonality trends.

Marketing

We have established world-renowned, widely used, and recognized brands through the innovative and efficient implementation of marketing and promotional campaigns. Particularly, we believe we have been successful with the strategic use of a number of cost effective online and offline marketing channels to reach travelers and diners, including our own platform channels (i.e., websites and apps), online search engines (primarily Google), social media, email, media via public relations, partnerships, and content distribution. Our omni-channel marketing

 

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programs are intended to showcase the value of our industry-leading travel brands; increase user traffic; efficiently drive transactions and engagement; optimize ongoing traveler acquisition costs; and strategically position our brands in relation to one another as we continue to differentiate our offering versus those of our competitors. Our sustained scale and profitability depend on our continued ability to cost effectively maintain and increase the overall number of users engaged on our platforms and their subsequent transactions. We continue to focus on our ability to attract and engage new and repeat users and encourage users to directly visit our websites and apps. We have the ability to manage our marketing investments across our portfolio of brands to optimize results for the Company. Our relative flexibility enables us to make decisions on a brand-by-brand, market-by-market, travel segment and customer basis that we think are appropriate based on the relative growth opportunity, the expected returns and the competitive environment.

Competition

We operate in a very competitive set of market environments that constantly evolve and change. Some of our current and potential competitors, listed below, have significantly more customers, data, and financial and other resources than we do, and may be able to leverage those strengths to compete more aggressively with us.

Across our three segments, we primarily compete, and in some cases partner, with the following businesses:

General OTAs, such as Expedia, Booking Holdings, Airbnb, traveloka, Despegar, Trip.com, and their respective subsidiaries and operating companies;
Experiences OTAs, such as GetYourGuide, Klook, and TUI Musement;
Hotel metasearch providers, such as trivago, Kayak and HotelsCombined;
Online search, social media, and marketplace platforms for advertising spend, such as Google, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Snap;
Global and regional travel, experiences, and restaurant brands seeking to promote direct bookings;
Emerging online advertising businesses, such as ad-supported retail and entertainment platforms like Amazon, Spotify, and Walmart;
Traditional offline travel agencies; and
Global and regional restaurant technology providers for reservation management and related services, such as OpenTable, Resy, and Tock.

Commercial Relationships

We have commercial relationships with a majority of the world’s leading OTAs, as well as thousands of other travel partners, pursuant to which these companies primarily purchase traveler leads from us, generally on a click-based advertising basis. Although these relationships are memorialized in agreements, many of these agreements are for limited terms or are terminable at will or on short notice. As a result, we seek to ensure the mutual success of these relationships.

For the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, our two most significant travel partners were Expedia (and its subsidiaries) and Booking (and its subsidiaries), each of which accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated revenue and together accounted for approximately 35%, 34% and 25% of our consolidated revenue, respectively. Nearly all of this concentration of revenue is recorded in our Tripadvisor Core segment during these reporting periods. Additionally, our business is dependent on relationships with third-party service operators that we rely on to fulfill service obligations to our customers where we are the merchant of record, such as our experience providers and vacation rental owners. However, no single operator’s inventory resulted in more than 10% of our revenue on a consolidated basis or at a reportable segment level in any period presented.

Operations and Technology

We have assembled a team of highly skilled software engineers, computer scientists, data scientists, network engineers and systems engineers whose expertise spans a broad range of technical areas, including a wide variety of open source operating systems, databases, languages, analytics, networking, scalable web architecture, operations

 

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and warehousing technologies. We make significant investments in product and feature development, data management, personalization technologies, scalable infrastructures, networking, data warehousing, and search engine technologies.

Our systems infrastructure for Tripadvisor-branded websites is in a "hybrid-cloud" configuration in which parts of it are housed at a colocation facility and managed by our operations team, while the rest is hosted on Amazon Web Services. Our infrastructure installations have multiple communication links as well as continuous monitoring and engineering support. The co-location facility is protected with both network-level and application-level defenses, using well known commercial solutions specifically tailored for such purposes. We make use of Amazon Web Services availability zones to provide redundancy for the cloud portions of our infrastructure. Substantially all of our software components, data, and content are replicated in multiple data centers and development centers, as well as backed up at offsite locations. Our systems are monitored and protected through multiple layers of security. Several of our individual subsidiaries and businesses have their own technology teams to support business growth while leveraging common assets, tools and processes for scale across the group.

Intellectual Property

Our intellectual property, including patents, trademarks, copyrights, domain names, trade dress, proprietary technology and trade secrets, is an important component of our business. We rely on our intellectual property rights in our content, proprietary technology, software code, ratings indexes, databases of reviews and forum content. We have acquired some of our intellectual property rights through licenses and content agreements with third parties and these arrangements may place restrictions on the use of our intellectual property.

We protect our intellectual property by relying on our terms of use, confidentiality agreements and contractual provisions, as well as on international, national, federal, state and common law rights. We protect our brands by pursuing the trademark registration of our core brands, as appropriate, maintaining our trademark portfolio, securing contractual trademark rights protection when appropriate, and relying on common law trademark rights when appropriate. We also register copyrights and domain names as deemed appropriate. Additionally, we protect our trademarks, domain names and copyrights with the use of intellectual property licenses and an enforcement program.

We have considered, and will continue to consider, the appropriateness of filing for patents to protect future inventions, as circumstances may warrant. However, many patents protect only specific inventions and there can be no assurance that others may not create new products or methods that achieve similar results without infringing upon patents owned by us.

In connection with our copyrightable content, we post and institute procedures under the U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act and similar “host privilege” statutes worldwide to gain immunity from copyright liability for photographs, text and other content loaded on our platform by consumers. However, differences between statutes, limitations on immunity, political and regulatory efforts to amend relevant statutes, and moderation efforts in the many jurisdictions in which we operate may affect our ability to claim immunity.

From time to time, we may be subject to legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of our business, including claims of alleged infringement by us of the trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property rights of third parties. In addition, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, protect our trade secrets or determine the validity and scope of proprietary rights claimed by others. Any such litigation, regardless of outcome or merit, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management and technical resources, any of which could materially harm our business.

Regulation

We are subject to a number of laws and regulations that affect companies conducting business on the internet as well as some relating to the travel industry, the provision of travel services and the vacation rental industry. As we continue to expand the reach of our brands into additional international markets and expand our product offerings, we are increasingly subject to additional laws and regulations. This includes laws and regulations

 

7


 

regarding privacy and data protection, libel and defamation, content, intellectual property, distribution, electronic contracts and other communications, consumer protection, taxation, online payment services and competition, among others. These laws and regulations are constantly evolving and can be subject to significant change. Many of these laws and regulations are being tested in courts, and could be interpreted by regulators and courts in ways that could harm our business. In addition, the application and interpretation of these laws and regulations is often uncertain, particularly in the new and rapidly-evolving industry in which we operate.

In addition, we provide advertising data and information and conduct marketing activities that are subject to consumer protection laws that regulate unfair and deceptive practices, domestically and internationally, including, in some countries, pricing display requirements, licensing and registration requirements and industry specific value-added tax regimes. The U.S. (as well as individual states), the E.U. (as well as member states) and other countries have adopted legislation that regulates certain aspects of the internet, including online editorial and user-generated content, data privacy, behavioral targeting and online advertising, taxation, and liability for third-party activities. It is difficult to accurately predict how such legislation will be interpreted and applied or whether new taxes or regulations will be imposed on our services, and whether or how we might be affected. Increased regulation of the internet could increase the cost of doing business or otherwise materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results.

We are subject to laws that require protection of user privacy and user data. As our business has evolved, we have begun to receive and store a greater volume of personally identifiable data. This data is increasingly subject to laws and regulations in numerous jurisdictions around the world. For example, the E.U., in May 2018, adopted the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which requires companies, including ours, to meet enhanced requirements regarding the handling and storage of personal data. In January 2020, the State of California adopted the Consumer Privacy Protection Act which also enhances privacy rights and consumer protection for residents of California. In addition, several U.S. states have adopted similar laws or are currently evaluating their own laws and regulations. The enactment, interpretation and application of these laws is still in a state of flux.

Compliance with these laws, rules and regulations has not had, and is not expected to have, a material effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. However, there are, and will likely continue to be, an increasing number of laws and regulations pertaining to the internet and online commerce and/or information retrieved from or transmitted over the internet, online editorial and user-generated content, user privacy, behavioral targeting and online advertising, liability for third-party activities. Likewise, the SEC, Department of Justice (“DOJ”) and Office of Foreign Assets Controls (“OFAC”), as well as foreign regulatory authorities, have continued to increase the enforcement of economic sanctions and trade regulations, anti-money laundering, and anti-corruption laws, across industries. As regulations continue to evolve and regulatory oversight continues to increase, we cannot guarantee that our programs and policies will be deemed compliant by all applicable regulatory authorities.

Corporate History, Equity Ownership and Voting Control

Tripadvisor was founded in February 2000. In April 2004, Tripadvisor was acquired by IAC/InterActiveCorp, or IAC. In August 2005, IAC spun-off its portfolio of travel brands, including Tripadvisor, into Expedia, at the time a separate newly-formed Delaware corporation. On December 20, 2011 Expedia completed a spin-off of Tripadvisor into a separate publicly-traded Delaware corporation. We refer to this second spin-off transaction as the “Spin-Off.” Following the Spin-Off, on December 21, 2011, Tripadvisor began trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, as an independent public company under the trading symbol “TRIP.”

On December 11, 2012, Liberty Interactive Corporation, or Liberty, purchased an aggregate of approximately 4.8 million shares of common stock of Tripadvisor from Barry Diller, our former Chairman of the Board of Directors and Senior Executive, and certain of his affiliates. As a result, Liberty beneficially owned approximately 18.2 million shares of our common stock and 12.8 million shares of our Class B common stock.

On August 27, 2014, the entire beneficial ownership of our common stock and Class B common stock held by Liberty was acquired by Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc., or LTRIP. Simultaneously, Liberty, LTRIP’s former parent company, distributed, by means of a dividend, to the holders of its Liberty Ventures common stock, Liberty’s entire equity interest in LTRIP. We refer to this transaction as the “Liberty Spin-Off”. As a result of the Liberty

 

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Spin-Off, effective August 27, 2014, LTRIP became a separate, publicly traded company holding 100% of Liberty’s interest in Tripadvisor.

As a result of these transactions, and as of December 31, 2022, LTRIP beneficially owned approximately 16.4 million shares of our common stock and 12.8 million shares of our Class B common stock, which constitute nearly 13% of the outstanding shares of common stock and 100% of the outstanding shares of Class B common stock. Assuming the conversion of all of LTRIP’s shares of Class B common stock into common stock, LTRIP would beneficially own nearly 21% of the outstanding common stock. Because each share of Class B common stock is entitled to ten votes per share and each share of common stock is entitled to one vote per share, LTRIP may be deemed to beneficially own equity securities representing approximately 56% of our voting power.

 

Human Capital Management, Culture and Employees

Employees

As of December 31, 2022, the Company had approximately 3,100 employees. Approximately 55%, 35%, and 10% of the Company’s current employees are based in Europe, the U.S., and the rest of world, respectively. Additionally, we use independent contractors to supplement our workforce. We believe we have good relationships with our employees and contractors, including relationships with employees represented by international works councils or other similar organizations.

Talent Acquisition and Development

We believe our employees are essential to our success and that the Company’s success depends on our ability to attract, develop and retain key talent. The skills, experience and industry knowledge of key employees significantly benefit our operations and performance. Competition for qualified personnel is intense, particularly for software engineers, computer scientists, and other technical staff, and constrained labor markets have increased competition for personnel across other parts of our business. The Company's management and Board of Directors oversee various initiatives for talent acquisition, retention and development.

Our talent philosophy is to both develop talent from within and to strategically recruit key external talent. This approach has yielded a deep understanding, among our employee base, of our business, our products, and our customers, while adding new employees and ideas in support of our continuous improvement mindset. Our overall talent acquisition and retention strategy is designed to attract and retain diverse and qualified candidates to enable the success of the Company and achievement of our performance goals. We recruit the best people for the job without regard to gender, ethnicity or other protected traits and it is our policy to comply fully with all domestic, foreign and local laws relating to discrimination in the workplace. Our talent acquisition team uses internal and external resources to recruit highly skilled and talented workers, and we encourage employee referrals for open positions.

We support and develop our employees through global training and development programs that build and strengthen employees’ leadership and professional skills. Leadership development includes programs for new leaders as well as programs designed to support more experienced leaders. We also partner with external training organizations to help provide current and future workers with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed.

It is important that our employees represent a mix of experiences and backgrounds in order to make our company stronger, more innovative and more inclusive. Inclusion is one of our core values, and we have programs in place to promote diversity and inclusion. Our diversity and inclusion initiatives support our goal that everyone throughout the Company is engaged in creating an inclusive workplace. We support inclusion through training on topics including Unconscious Bias and Inclusive Leadership. We also support a network of active Employee Resource Groups reflecting many dimensions of diversity across the Company.

 

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Total Rewards

As part of our compensation philosophy, we believe that we must offer and maintain market competitive total rewards programs for our employees in order to attract, motivate and retain superior talent. These programs not only include base wages and incentives in support of our pay for performance culture, but also health, welfare, and retirement benefits.

We design our benefit programs to meet the needs of our employees’ health while managing program costs for escalation rates at or below industry trend factors. Our programs include but are not limited to wellness, mental health services, telemedicine, and partnerships with service providers that support diverse family-care need solutions. We continuously refine, develop and implement proactive health care strategies and solutions that allow us to enhance employee health and well-being while curbing costs.

Health and Safety

 

The health and safety of our employees is of utmost importance to us. We conduct regular self-assessments and audits to ensure compliance with our health and safety guidelines and regulatory requirements.

Additional Information

We maintain a corporate website at ir.tripadvisor.com. Except as explicitly noted, the information on our website, as well as the websites of our various brands, is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or in any other filings with, or in any information furnished or submitted to, the SEC.

On our Investor Relations website (http://ir.tripadvisor.com/investor-relations), we provide our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports free of charge. These reports are available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file or furnish these reports to the SEC or publish through press releases, public conference calls and certain webcasts. All documents filed electronically with the SEC (including reports, proxy and information statements and other information) are also available at www.sec.gov. Investors and others should be aware that we use our investor relations website (http://ir.tripadvisor.com/investor-relations) to announce material financial information to our investors as well as communicate with the public about our company, our results of operations and other information.

We post our code of business conduct and ethics, which applies to all employees, including all executive officers, senior financial officers and directors, on our corporate website at www.tripadvisor.com. We intend to disclose any waivers of the code of ethics for our executive officers, senior financial officers or directors, on our corporate website.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

You should consider carefully the risks described below together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report as they may impact our business, results of operations and/or financial condition. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also impair our business, results of operations or financial condition. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Weak economic conditions, including those that cause declines or disruptions in the travel industry or reduce consumer discretionary spending have had a material adverse impact on the Company’s business and financial performance. Our business and financial performance are affected by the health of the worldwide travel industry. Events beyond our control, such as pandemics, unusual or extreme weather or natural disasters (whether caused by climate change or otherwise), travel-related health concerns, restrictions related to travel, trade or immigration policies, wars, sources of political uncertainty, foreign policy changes, regional hostilities, imposition

 

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of taxes or surcharges by regulatory authorities, labor unrest or travel-related accidents, can disrupt travel globally or otherwise result in declines in travel demand. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic caused significant disruption in the travel industry and resulted in a material adverse impact on our business.

In addition, the uncertainty of macro-economic factors and their impact on consumer behavior makes it more difficult to forecast industry and consumer trends, which in turn could adversely affect our ability to effectively manage our business. Our financial performance is also subject to global economic conditions and their impact on levels of discretionary consumer spending. Sales of travel services tend to decline or grow more slowly during economic downturns and times of inflation when consumers engage in less discretionary spending, are concerned about unemployment or economic weakness, have reduced access to credit or experience other concerns that reduce their ability or willingness to travel. Leisure travel, which accounts for a substantial majority of our current business, is particularly dependent on discretionary consumer spending levels.

If we are unable to continue to attract a significant amount of visitors to our platform, to cost-effectively convert these visitors into revenue-generating customers and to continue to engage consumers, our business and financial performance could be harmed. Our traffic and user engagement could be adversely affected by a number of factors including, but not limited to, inability to provide quality content, inventory or supply to our consumers; declines or inefficiencies in traffic acquisition and reduced awareness of our brands. Certain of our competitors have advertising campaigns expressly designed to drive traffic directly to their websites, and these campaigns may negatively impact traffic to our platform. There can be no assurances that we will continue to provide content and products in a manner that meets rapidly changing demand. Any failure to obtain and manage content and products in a cost-effective manner that will engage consumers, or any failure to provide content and products that are perceived as useful, reliable and trustworthy, could adversely affect user experiences and their repeat behavior, reduce traffic to our platform and negatively impact our business and financial performance.

We rely on internet search engines and application marketplaces to drive traffic to our platform, certain providers of which offer products and services that compete directly with ours. If we are unable to drive traffic cost-effectively, traffic to our platform could decline and our business would be negatively affected. The number of consumers we attract to our platform is due in large part to how and where information from, and links to, our platform are displayed on search engine results pages, or SERPs. The display, including rankings, of search results can be affected by a number of factors, many of which are not in our control. Search engines frequently change the logic that determines the placement and display of the results of a user’s search, such that the purchased or algorithmic placement of links to our platform can be negatively affected. A search engine could alter its search algorithms or results causing our websites to place lower in search query results. For example, Google, a significant source of traffic to our platform, frequently promotes its own competing products in its search results, which has negatively impacted placement of references to our company and our platform on the SERP. If a major search engine changes its algorithms in a manner that negatively affects the search engine ranking of our websites or those of our travel partners, or if competitive dynamics impact the cost or effectiveness of Search Engine Optimization (“SEO”) or Search Engine Marketing (“SEM”) in a negative manner, our business and financial performance would be adversely affected. Furthermore, our failure to successfully manage our SEO and SEM strategies and/or other traffic acquisition strategies could result in a substantial decrease in traffic to our platform, as well as increased costs to the extent we replace free traffic with paid traffic.

We also rely on application marketplaces, or app stores such as Apple’s App Store and Google’s Play, to drive downloads of our apps. In the future, Apple, Google or other marketplace operators may make changes that make access to our products more difficult or may limit our access to information that would restrict our ability to provide the best user experience. For example, Google has entered various aspects of the online travel market, including by establishing a flight metasearch product and hotel metasearch product as well as reservation functionality. Our apps may receive unfavorable treatment compared to the promotion and placement of competing apps, such as the order in which they appear within marketplaces. In addition, Apple has announced new features that limit who has access to consumer data, including location information. Similarly, if problems arise in our relationships with providers of application marketplaces, traffic to our platform and our user growth could be harmed.

We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from advertising and any significant reduction in spending by advertisers on our platform could harm our business. Our ability to grow advertising revenue with our existing or new travel partners is dependent in large part on our ability to provide value to them relative to other alternatives. Our ability to provide value to our travel partners depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

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Our ability to increase or maintain user engagement;
Our ability to increase or maintain the quantity and quality of ads shown to consumers;
The development of technologies that can block the display of our ads or our ad measurement tools;
The effectiveness of our advertising and the extent to which it generates sales leads, customers, bookings or financial results on a cost-effective basis;
The competitiveness of our products, traffic quality, perception of our platform, and availability and accuracy of analytics and measurement solutions to demonstrate our value; and
Adverse government actions or legal developments relating to advertising, including limitations on our ability to deliver targeted advertising.

Any of these or other factors could result in a reduction in demand for our ads, which may reduce the prices we receive for our ads, or cause marketers to stop advertising with us altogether, any of which would negatively affect our revenue and financial results.

Click-based advertising revenue accounts for the majority of our advertising revenue. Our pricing for click-based advertising depends, in part, on competition between advertisers. If our large advertisers become less competitive with each other, merge with each other or with our competitors, focus more on per-click profit than on traffic volume, or are able to reduce CPCs, this could have an adverse impact on our advertising revenue which would, in turn, have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.

We rely on a relatively small number of significant travel partners and any reduction in spending by or loss of these partners could seriously harm our business. For the year ended December 31, 2022, our two most significant travel partners, Expedia and Booking (and their subsidiaries), accounted for a combined 35% of total revenue, with most of this revenue recorded within our Tripadvisor Core segment. If any of our significant travel partners were to cease or significantly curtail advertising on our platform, we could experience a rapid decline in our revenue over a relatively short period of time which would have a material impact on our business.

Our business depends on strong brands and any failure to maintain, protect or enhance our brands could hurt our ability to retain and expand our base of consumers and partners, the frequency with which consumers utilize our products and services and our ability to attract partners. Our ability to maintain and protect our brands depends, in part, on our ability to maintain consumer trust in our products and services and in the quality, integrity, reliability and usefulness of the content and other information found on our platform. If consumers do not view the content on our platform to be useful and reliable, they may seek other sources to obtain the information they are looking for and may not return to our platform as often or at all. We dedicate significant resources to protecting the quality of our content, primarily through our content guidelines, computer algorithms and human moderators that are focused on identifying and removing inappropriate, unreliable or deceptive content.

Media, legal, or regulatory scrutiny of our user content, advertising practices, and other issues may adversely affect our reputation and brand. Negative publicity about our company, including our content, technology and business practices, could diminish our reputation and confidence in our brand, thereby negatively affecting the use of our products and our financial performance. For example, in the past, certain media outlets have alleged that we have improperly filtered or screened reviews, that we have not properly verified reviews, or that we manipulate reviews, ranking and ratings in favor of our advertisers. We expend significant resources to ensure the integrity of our reviews and to ensure that the most relevant reviews are available to our consumers; we do not establish rankings and ratings in favor of our advertisers. Regulatory inquiries or investigations require management time and attention and could result in further negative publicity, regardless of their merits or ultimate outcomes.

In addition, unfavorable publicity regarding, for example, our practices relating to privacy and data protection could adversely affect our reputation with our consumers and our partners. Such negative publicity also could have an adverse effect on the size, engagement, and loyalty of our user base and result in decreased revenue.

If we are unable to offer compelling products and services on mobile devices or continue to operate effectively on these platforms, our business may be adversely affected. Widespread adoption of mobile devices has driven substantial online traffic and commerce to mobile platforms. Our platform, when utilized on mobile phone devices, have historically monetized at a significantly lower rate than desktops and advertising opportunities are more limited on these devices. Additionally, consumer purchasing patterns differ on these devices. For example, accommodation reservations made on a mobile device are generally for shorter lengths of stay and are not made as far in advance. We expect that the ways in which consumers engage with our platform will continue to change as consumers increasingly engage via alternative devices.

 

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It is important for us to develop and maintain effective platforms to drive adoption and user engagement by providing consumers with an appealing, easy-to-use experience. As new devices and platforms are continually being released, it is difficult to predict the problems we may encounter in adapting our products and services and we may need to devote significant resources to the creation, support and maintenance of competitive new products. If we are unable to continue to rapidly innovate and create appealing, user-friendly and differentiated offerings and efficiently and effectively advertise on these platforms, we could lose market share and our business, future growth and financial results could be adversely affected.

Our success will also depend on the interoperability of our products with a range of technologies, systems, networks and standards and our ability to create, maintain and develop relationships with key participants in related industries, some of which may be our competitors. For example, Apple’s iPhone and Google’s Android are the leading smartphones in the world and our products need to synergistically function on their operating systems in order to create a positive user experience on those devices. Yet, Apple continues to announce and implement new privacy features that limit the amount of information we can access about our users operating on the Apple iPhone operating system.

We may not be successful in developing products that operate effectively with these technologies, systems, networks and standards or in creating, maintaining and developing relationships with key participants in related industries. If we experience difficulties or increased costs in integrating our products into alternative devices or if manufacturers do not include our products in their devices, make changes that degrade the functionality of our products, give preferential treatment to competitive products or prevent us from delivering advertising, our user growth and financial results may be harmed.

Any continued or future declines or disruptions in the economy and industries in which we operate could adversely affect our businesses, financial performance and the market price of our common stock. Sales of travel and/or leisure products tend to decline or grow more slowly during economic downturns when consumers engage in less discretionary spending, are concerned about unemployment or economic weakness, have reduced access to credit or experience other concerns that reduce their ability or willingness to travel. The uncertainty of macro-economic factors and their impact on consumer behavior makes it more difficult to forecast industry and consumer trends and the timing and degree of their impact on our markets and business, which in turn could adversely affect our ability to effectively manage our business. Economic downturn and adverse market conditions may also negatively impact our partners, our partners’ access to capital, cost of capital and ability to meet liquidity needs. These challenges faced in a prolonged economic downturn or deterioration in the travel industry could adversely impact our business, financial performance and share price. The extent and duration of such impacts remain largely uncertain and dependent on future developments that cannot be accurately predicted at this time.

The global economy may be adversely impacted by events beyond our control including actual or threatened terrorism, regional hostilities or instability, natural disasters, political instability and health concerns (including epidemics or pandemics), significant increases in energy costs, tightening of credit markets and declines in consumer confidence. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic had a material impact on the travel industry, our company and our financial performance. In addition, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, much of our work force began working remotely and continue to work remotely. Working remotely can give rise to cybersecurity issues, training and compliance issues, or create operational or other challenges as we adjust to a fully-remote workforce, any of which could harm our business.

We operate in a competitive global environment and our failure to compete effectively could reduce our market share and harm our financial performance. We compete with different types of companies in the various markets and geographies where we operate, including large and small companies in the travel and leisure space as well as broader service providers. We face competition for content, consumers, advertisers, online travel search and price comparison services and online reservations. We compete globally with both online and offline, established and emerging, providers of travel, lodging, experiences and restaurant reservation and related services. Current and new competitors can launch new services at a relatively low cost. More specifically:

General OTAs, such as Expedia, Booking Holdings, Airbnb, traveloka, Despegar, Trip.com, and their respective subsidiaries and operating companies;
Experiences OTAs, such as GetYourGuide, Klook, and TUI Musement;
Hotel metasearch providers, such as trivago, Kayak and HotelsCombined;

 

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Online search, social media, and marketplace platforms for advertising spend, such as Google, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Snap;
Global and regional travel, experiences, and restaurant brands seeking to promote direct bookings;
Emerging online advertising businesses, such as ad-supported retail and entertainment platforms like Amazon, Spotify, and Walmart;
Traditional offline travel agencies; and
Global and regional restaurant technology providers for reservation management and related services, such as OpenTable, Resy, and Tock.

There has been a proliferation of new channels through which service providers can offer accommodations, experiences and restaurant reservations. Metasearch services may lower the cost for new companies to enter the market by providing a distribution channel without the cost of promoting the new entrant’s brand to drive consumers directly to its website. Some of our competitors offer a variety of online services and, in some cases, are willing to make little or no profit on a transaction, or offer travel services at a loss, in order to gain market share. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources and have more expertise in developing online commerce and facilitating internet traffic as well as larger client bases. They also have the ability to leverage other aspects of their business to enable them to compete more effectively.

In addition, Google and other large, established companies with substantial resources and expertise have launched travel or travel-related search, metasearch and/or reservation booking services and may create additional inroads into online travel. Many of our competitors continue to expand their voice and artificial intelligence capabilities, which may provide them with a competitive advantage in travel.

We compete with certain companies that we also do business with, including certain of our travel partners and related parties. The consolidation of our competitors and travel partners may affect our relative competitiveness and our travel partner relationships. Competition and consolidation could result in higher traffic acquisition costs, reduced margins on our advertising services, loss of market share, reduced customer traffic to our platform and reduced advertising by travel companies on our platform.

We rely on information technology to operate our business and remain competitive, and any failure to adapt to technological developments or industry trends could harm our businesses. Our future success depends on our ability to continuously improve and upgrade our systems and infrastructure to meet rapidly evolving consumer trends and demands while at the same time maintaining the reliability and integrity of our systems and infrastructure. We may not be able to maintain or replace our existing systems or introduce new technologies and systems as quickly as we would like or in a cost-effective manner. We may not be successful, or as successful as our competitors, in developing technologies and systems that operate effectively across multiple devices and platforms in a way that is appealing to our consumers. Our future success will also depend on our ability to adapt to emerging technologies such as tokenization; new authentication technologies, such as biometrics, distributed ledger and blockchain technologies; new and emerging payment methods, such as Alipay, Paytm and WeChat Pay; artificial intelligence; virtual and augmented reality; and cloud technologies. The emergence of alternative or new devices and the emergence of niche competitors who may be able to optimize products, services or strategies for such platforms will require additional investment in technology. New developments in other areas could also make it easier for competitors to enter our markets due to lower up-front technology costs.

If we are unable to adapt to the evolving demands of our customers, we may not remain competitive, and our business and financial performance could suffer. Our competitors are continually developing innovations in services and features. As a result, we are continually working to improve the user experience on our platform in order to engage our consumers and drive user traffic and conversion rates for our partners and provide our business partners with the tools they need to succeed. We have invested, and expect to continue to invest, significant resources in developing and marketing these innovations. We can give no assurances that the changes we make will yield the benefits we expect and will not have unintended or adverse impacts. If we are unable to continue offering innovative products and services and quality features that customers want to use, existing customers may become dissatisfied and use competitors’ offerings and we may be unable to attract additional customers, which could adversely affect our business and financial performance.

Our dedication to making the consumer experience our highest priority may cause us to prioritize rapid innovation and consumer experience over short-term financial results. We strive to create the best experience for our consumers. We believe that in doing so we will increase our traffic conversion (i.e., visitors converting into

 

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clicks and/or bookings), revenue and financial performance. We have taken actions in the past, and may continue to take actions in the future, that have the effect of reducing our short-term financial results if we believe the actions benefit the overall consumer experience. These decisions may not produce the long-term benefits we expect, new or enhanced products may fail to engage consumers and/or we may be unsuccessful in our efforts to monetize these initiatives, in which case our relationships with consumers and partners, and our business and financial performance could be harmed.

We are dependent upon the quality of traffic in our network to provide value to our partners, and any failure in our ability to deliver quality traffic and/or the metrics to demonstrate the value of the traffic could have a material and adverse impact on the value of our platform to our partners and adversely affect our revenue. We use technology and processes to monitor the quality of the internet traffic that we deliver to our partners and have identified metrics to demonstrate the quality of that traffic and identify low quality clicks such as non-human processes, including robots, spiders, the mechanical automation of clicking and other types of invalid clicks or click fraud. Even with such monitoring in place, there is a risk that a certain amount of low-quality traffic will be delivered to such online advertisers. Such low-quality or invalid traffic may be detrimental to our relationships with partners and could adversely affect our advertising pricing and revenue.

We rely on assumptions and estimates and data to calculate certain of our key metrics, and real or perceived inaccuracies in such metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business. Certain metrics are key to our business; as both the industry in which we operate and our businesses continue to evolve, so too might the metrics by which we evaluate our businesses. While the calculation of the metrics we use is based on what we believe to be reasonable estimates, our internal tools are not independently verified by a third-party and have a number of limitations; furthermore, our methodologies for tracking these metrics may change over time. For example, a single person may have multiple accounts or browse the internet on multiple browsers or devices, some consumers may restrict our ability to accurately identify them across visits, some mobile apps automatically contact our servers for regular updates with no user action, and we are not always able to capture user information on our platform. As such, the calculations of our unique users may not accurately reflect the number of people actually visiting our platform. If the internal tools we use to track these metrics under-count or over-count performance or contain algorithm or other technical errors, the data we report may not be accurate. We continue to improve upon our tools and methodologies to capture data; however, the improvement of our tools and methodologies could cause inconsistency between current data and previously reported data, which could confuse investors or lead to questions about the integrity of our data. Finally, we may, in the future, identify new or other metrics that enable us to more accurately evaluate our business. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on these metrics.

Our future success depends on the performance of our key employees and our ability to attract and retain senior management and highly skilled personnel. In particular, we are highly dependent on the services of our leadership team for the development of and our execution on our vision and strategy. In 2022, we made several changes to our senior management team, including those serving as our Chief Executive Officer and President and our Chief Financial Officer and adding several senior leaders. Our future performance will depend, in part, on the successful integration of these new senior level executives into their roles. If we do not successfully manage these additions, it could be viewed negatively by our investors, employees, and partners, and could have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations. We also heavily rely on the continued service and performance of our senior management team, which provides leadership, contributes to the core areas of our business and helps us to efficiently execute on mission, vision and strategic initiatives. If we are unable to retain members of our senior management team, including our executive leadership, we may not be able to manage our business effectively and, as a result, our business and operating results could be harmed. If the senior management team fails to work together effectively and to execute our plans and strategies on a timely basis, then our business and future growth prospects could be harmed.

The success of our operations and the quality of our services are also highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain skilled personnel. For employees, we compete with companies that have far greater financial resources than we do as well as companies that promise short-term growth opportunities and/or other benefits. If we do not succeed in attracting well-qualified employees or retaining or motivating existing employees, our business would be adversely affected.

Acquisitions, investments, significant commercial arrangements and/or new business strategies could present new challenges and risks and disrupt our ongoing business. We have acquired, invested in and/or entered into significant commercial arrangements with a number of businesses in the past and our future growth may

 

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depend, in part, on future acquisitions, investments, commercial arrangements and/or changes in business strategies. Such endeavors may involve significant risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the following:

Costs incurred to identify, pursue and fund these endeavors that may or may not be successful and may limit other potential uses of cash;
Diversion of management’s attention or other resources from our existing business;
Difficulties and expenses in integrating the operations, products, technology or personnel;
Difficulties in implementing and retaining uniform standards, controls, procedures, policies and information systems;
Assumption of debt and liabilities, including costs associated with litigation, cybersecurity risks, and other claims;
Failure of any such strategy or target to achieve anticipated objectives, revenues or earnings;
Limited management or operational control and heightened reputational risk with respect to minority investments;
Entrance into markets in which we have no prior experience;
Amortization expenses related to acquired intangible assets and other adverse accounting consequences; and
Adverse market reaction to the transaction.

We have in the past invested, and may in the future invest, in privately-held companies. Such investments are inherently risky and our ability to liquidate any such investments is typically difficult. Valuations of such privately-held companies are inherently complex and uncertain due to the lack of liquid market for the companies’ securities. We cannot assure you that these investments will be successful or that such endeavors will result in the realization of the synergies, cost savings and innovation that may be possible within a reasonable period of time, if at all. We could lose the full amount of our investments; any impairment of our investments could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Matters

We are a global company that operates in many different jurisdictions inside and outside the U.S. and these operations expose us to additional risks. Many regions have different economic conditions, languages, currencies, legislation, regulatory environments, levels of political stability, levels of consumer expectations, and use of the internet for commerce. We are subject to risks typical of global businesses, including, but not limited to, the following:

Compliance with additional laws and regulations, including but not limited to, laws and regulations regarding data privacy, labor and employment, advertising, anti-competition and tax;
Difficulties in managing staff and operations due to distance, time zones, language and cultural differences;
Restrictions on repatriation of cash and on investments in operations;
Uncertainty regarding liability for services, content and intellectual property rights;
Increased risk and limits on enforceability of intellectual property rights;
Diminished ability to legally enforce contractual rights;
Economic or political instability or laws involving economic or trade prohibitions or sanctions; and
Threatened or actual acts of terrorism.

Our strategy includes continued expansion in existing markets and potentially new markets. In addition to the risks mentioned above, international markets have strong local competitors with established brands and travel service providers or relationships that may make expansion in certain markets difficult and costly and take more time than anticipated. In some markets, legal and other regulatory requirements may prohibit or limit participation by foreign businesses, such as by making foreign ownership or management of internet or travel-related businesses illegal or difficult or may make direct participation in those markets uneconomic, which could make our entry or expansion in those markets difficult or impossible, require that we work with a local partner or result in higher operating costs. If we are unsuccessful in expanding in existing and potentially new markets and effectively managing that expansion, our business and financial results could be adversely affected.

We are regularly subject to claims, lawsuits, government investigations, and other proceedings which may result in adverse outcomes and, regardless of the outcome, result in legal costs, diversion of management

 

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resources, injunctions or damage awards, and other negative results. It is possible that a resolution of one or more such proceedings could result in substantial damages, fines or penalties that could adversely affect our business, financial results or financial position. These proceedings could also result in reputational harm, criminal sanctions or consent decrees, the release of confidential information or orders preventing us from offering certain features, functionalities, products, or services, requiring a change in our business practices. Any of these consequences could adversely affect our business and financial results.

A failure to comply with existing or new laws, rules and regulations or changes to such laws, rules and regulations and other legal uncertainties may adversely affect our business or financial results. Our business and financial results could be adversely affected by unfavorable changes in or interpretations of existing laws, rules and regulations or the promulgation of new laws, rules and regulations applicable to us and our business, including, but not limited to, those relating to internet and online commerce, internet advertising, consumer protection, intermediary liability and data security and privacy. These laws continue to evolve. For example, there is, and will likely continue to be, an increasing number of laws and regulations pertaining to internet and online commerce and liability for information retrieved from or transmitted over the internet, online editorial and user-generated content, user privacy, behavioral targeting and online advertising and liability for third-party activities. Likewise, the SEC, DOJ and OFAC, as well as foreign regulatory authorities, have continued to increase the enforcement of economic sanctions and trade regulations, anti-money laundering, and anti-corruption laws, across industries. Operating in this dynamic regulatory environment requires significant management attention and financial resources. As regulations continue to evolve and regulatory oversight continues to increase, we cannot guarantee that our programs and policies will be deemed compliant by all applicable regulatory authorities. The failure of our businesses to comply with these laws and regulations could result in fines and/or proceedings against us by governmental agencies, regulatory authorities, courts and/or consumers, which, if material, could adversely affect our business and financial results.

The promulgation of new laws, rules and regulations, or new interpretations of existing laws, rules and regulations, could require us to change certain aspects of our business, operations and relationships to ensure compliance, which could decrease demand for services, reduce revenues, increase costs and/or subject the Company to additional liabilities. For example, many jurisdictions have adopted, and many jurisdictions are considering adopting, privacy rights and consumer protections for their residents, which legislation will continue to change the landscape for the use and protection of data and could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our services. Unfavorable changes could limit marketing methods and capabilities, decrease demand for products and services, impede development of new products, require significant management time, increase costs and/or subject us to additional liabilities. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in penalties, criminal sanctions and/or negative publicity against us, our officers or our employees and/or restrictions on the conduct of our business.

We face risks related to our intellectual property. We rely on content, brands and technology, much of which is proprietary. We protect our content, brands and technology by, among other things, a combination of maintenance and enforcement of registered and unregistered intellectual property rights (e.g. trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets), technological solutions and contractual protections. Even with these precautions, it may be possible for another party to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property, without authorization or to independently develop similar content, brands or technology. Any misappropriation or violation of our rights could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every jurisdiction in which our platform or services are made available and policing unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and expensive. Therefore, in certain jurisdictions, we may be unable to adequately protect our intellectual property against unauthorized third-party copying or use. We cannot be sure that the steps we have taken will prevent misappropriation or infringement of our intellectual property. Furthermore, we may need to go to court or other tribunals in order to enforce our rights or scope of the proprietary rights of others. These proceedings might result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention, and we cannot accurately predict the likelihood of success in such proceedings. Our failure to protect our intellectual property in an effective manner could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We currently license some of the intellectual property displayed on our platform from third parties. As we continue to introduce new services that incorporate new intellectual property, we may be required or elect to license additional intellectual property. We cannot be sure that such licenses will be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all.

 

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From time to time, in the ordinary course of our business, we have been subject to, and are currently subject to, legal proceedings and claims relating to third-party intellectual property rights, and we expect that third parties will continue to assert intellectual property claims against us, particularly as we expand the complexity and scope of our platform and services. Successful intellectual property claims against us could result in significant monetary liability or prevent us from operating our business, or portions of our business, or require us to change business practices or develop non-infringing intellectual property, which could require significant effort and expense. In addition, resolution of claims may require us to obtain releases or licenses to use intellectual property rights belonging to third-parties, which may be expensive to procure, or possibly to cease using those rights altogether. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Increased focus on our environmental, social, and governance ("ESG") responsibilities have and will likely continue to result in additional costs and risks, and may adversely impact our reputation, employee retention, and willingness of customers and partners to do business with us. Institutional, individual, and other investors, proxy advisory services, regulatory authorities, consumers and other stakeholders are increasingly focused on ESG practices of companies. The standards for tracking and reporting on ESG matters and disclosure frameworks are relatively new, have not been harmonized, and continue to evolve. Ensuring there are systems and processes in place to comply with the various ESG tracking and reporting obligations may require management time and expense. As we look to respond to evolving standards for identifying, measuring, and reporting ESG metrics, our efforts may result in a significant increase in costs and may nonetheless not meet investor or other stakeholder expectations and evolving standards or regulatory requirements, which may negatively impact our financial results, our reputation, our ability to attract or retain employees, our attractiveness as a service provider, investment, or business partner, or expose us to government enforcement actions, private litigation, and actions by stockholders or stakeholders.

Risks Related to Data Security and Privacy

Our processing, storage and use of personal information and other data subjects us to additional laws and regulations. Failure to comply with those laws and regulations could give rise to liabilities. The security of data when engaging in electronic commerce is essential to maintaining consumer and service provider confidence in our services. We are subject to a variety of laws in the U.S. and abroad regarding privacy and the storing, sharing, use, processing, disclosure and protection of personal information, the scope of which are changing, subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent between countries or conflict with other existing laws. The regulatory framework for privacy issues worldwide is currently in flux and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. In addition, practices regarding the collection, use, storage, transmission and security of personal information by companies operating over the internet have recently come under increased public scrutiny.

Implementing and complying with these laws and regulations may be more costly or take longer than we anticipate, or could otherwise affect our operations. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy and information security policies, privacy-related obligations to consumers or other third parties, or privacy-related legal obligations, may result in litigation or governmental enforcement actions that could harm our reputation and cause our consumers and partners to lose trust in us, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, brand, market share and financial results.

We are subject to risks associated with processing credit card and other payment transactions and failure to manage those risks may subject us to fines, penalties and/or additional costs and could have a negative impact on our business. We accept payments from consumers and our business partners using a variety of methods, including credit, debit and invoicing. We are susceptible to fraudulent activity and cybercrime generally and with respect to this payment facilitation activity. We rely on third parties to provide certain payment methods and payment processing services and our business could be disrupted if these companies become unwilling or unable to provide these services to us. We are subject to laws, regulations and compliance requirements relating to payments, international money transfers, privacy and information security and money laundering, including obligations to implement enhanced authentication processes. We are also subject to payment card association operating rules, including data security rules, certification requirements, and rules governing electronic funds transfers, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. These laws, regulations and/or requirements result in significant costs. If we fail to comply or if our data security systems are breached or compromised, we may be liable for card issuing banks’ costs, subject to fines, penalties and higher transaction fees, and/or lose our ability to accept credit and debit card payments, process electronic funds transfers, or facilitate other

 

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types of online payments. In addition, for certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we pay interchange and other fees, which may increase over time and raise our operating costs and lower profitability.

Additionally, our marketplace activities in the U.K. and Europe require us to obtain or operate under a payment institution license under the Payment Services Directive Two (“PSD2”). PSD2 requires a license to perform certain defined “payment services” in a European Economic Area (“EEA”) member state. Conditions for obtaining and complying with the license include minimum capital requirements, establishment of procedures for safeguarding funds, and certain governance and reporting requirements. Certain obligations relating to internal controls and the conduct of business, in particular, consumer disclosure requirements and certain rules regarding the timing and settlement of payments, must be met. We have obtained a payment institution license in the U.K. As a result of Brexit, we are no longer able to passport our U.K. license to the EEA. Although work on our EU application is underway and we anticipate submitting our application in the first half of 2023, we may not receive the EU license on a timely basis if at all.

It is possible that we could become subject to regulatory enforcement or other proceedings in those states or other jurisdictions with money transmission, or other similar statutes or regulatory requirements, including an EEA member state, related to the handling or moving of money, which could in turn have a significant impact on our business, even if we were to ultimately prevail in such proceedings. If we are ultimately deemed to be in violation of one or more money transmitter or other similar statutes or regulatory requirements related to the handling or moving of money in the U.S., the EEA or other jurisdictions, we may be subject to the imposition of fines or restrictions on our business, our ability to offer some or all of our services in the relevant jurisdiction may be suspended, and we may be subject to civil or criminal liability and our business, results of operations and financial position could be materially adversely affected.

System security issues, data protection breaches, cyberattacks and system outage issues could disrupt our operations or services provided to our consumers, and any such disruption could damage our reputation and adversely affect our business, financial results and share price. Our reputation and ability to attract, retain and service our consumers and partners is dependent upon the reliable performance and security of our computer systems and those of third parties we utilize in our operations. Significant security issues, data breaches, cyberattacks and outages, interruptions or delays, in our systems or third-party systems upon which we rely, could impair our ability to display content or process transactions and significantly harm our business. Breaches of our security measures or the accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure or unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive or confidential data about us, our consumers or our partners, could expose us, our consumers and partners to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, damage our brand and reputation or otherwise harm our business and financial performance and could result in government enforcement actions and litigation and potential liability for us. The costs of enhancing infrastructure to attain improved stability and redundancy may be time consuming and expensive and may require resources and expertise that are difficult to obtain. In addition, to the extent that we do experience a data breach, remediation may be costly and we may not have adequate insurance to cover such costs.

Computer programmers and hackers also may be able to develop and deploy viruses, worms, ransomware and other malicious software programs that attack our products or otherwise exploit any vulnerabilities in our systems, or attempt to fraudulently induce our employees, consumers, or others to disclose passwords or other sensitive information or unwittingly provide access to our systems or data. In addition, sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that we produce or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture, including “bugs” and other problems that could unexpectedly interfere with the operation of the system. We may need to expend significant resources to protect against security breaches or to investigate and address problems caused by cyber or other security problems. Failure to adequately protect against attacks or intrusions, whether for our own systems or systems of vendors, could expose us to security breaches that could have an adverse impact on our financial performance.

Much of our business is conducted with third-party partners and vendors. A security breach at such third-party could be perceived by consumers as a security breach of our systems and could result in negative publicity or reputational damage, expose us to risk of loss or litigation and subject us to regulatory penalties and sanctions. In addition, such incidents may also result in a decline in our user base and client base or engagement levels.

Media coverage of data breaches and public exposure of consumer data rights has increased, in part because of the rise of enforcement actions, investigations and lawsuits. Similarly, the increase in privacy activist groups is likely to give rise to further scrutiny, investigative actions and publicity. Security breaches could result in negative

 

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publicity, damage to reputation, exposure to risk of loss and possible liability due to regulatory penalties and sanctions. As this focus and attention on privacy and data protection increases, we also risk exposure to potential liabilities and costs resulting from the compliance with, or any failure to comply with, applicable legal requirements, conflicts among these legal requirements or differences in approaches to privacy and security. Security breaches could also cause travelers and consumers to lose confidence in our data security, which would have a negative effect on the value of our brand.

Evolving regulations, guidance and practices on the use of "cookies" and similar tracking technologies could negatively impact the way we do business. Cookies and similar technologies are common tools used by websites and apps, including ours, to store or gather information, improve site security, improve and personalize the customer experience, market to consumers and increase conversion. Companies such as Apple and Google have introduced new policies governing developers’ use of cookies and similar tracking technologies, including enhanced disclosure and opt in requirements. Similarly, many states and countries have adopted data protection laws and regulations governing the use of cookies and other similar tracking technologies by websites and app developers. Such regulations could limit our ability to serve certain customers in the manner we currently do, including with respect to retargeting or personalized advertising, impair our ability to improve and optimize performance on our platform, negatively affect a consumer's experience using our platform, which, in turn, could negatively impact our business.

Equally, privacy has been the impetus behind a move towards a cookie-less online ecosystem which poses a potential risk to our online behavioral advertising strategy.

Risks Related to Financial Matters

Our financial results are difficult to forecast; they have fluctuated in the past and will likely fluctuate in the future. Our financial results in any given quarter can be influenced by numerous factors, many of which we are unable to predict or are outside of our control, including:

Our ability to maintain and grow our consumer base and to increase user engagement;
Increases in marketing, sales and other expenses that we will incur to grow and expand our operations and to remain competitive;
Fluctuations in the marketing spend of our travel partners due to seasonality, global or regional events or other factors;
User behavior or product changes that may reduce traffic to features or products that we successfully monetize;
System failure or outages, which would prevent us from serving ads for any period of time;
Breaches of security or privacy and the costs associated with any such breaches and remediation;
Fees paid to third parties for content or promotion of our products and services;
Adverse litigation judgments, settlement or other litigation related costs;
Changes in the legislative or regulatory environment or engagement by regulators;
Changes in tax laws, which may significantly affect our tax rates and taxes due;
Tax obligations that may arise from resolutions of tax examinations that may materially differ from the amounts we have anticipated;
Fluctuations in currency exchange rates and changes in the proportion of our revenue and expenses denominated in foreign currencies;
Changes in GAAP; and
Changes in global business and macroeconomic conditions.

As a result, you should not rely upon our quarterly financial results as indicators of future performance.

If we are unable to successfully maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and our business and our share price may be adversely impacted. As a public company, we are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and our management is required to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of the end of each fiscal year. If we are not successful in maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, there could be inaccuracies or omissions in the financial information we file with the SEC. Additionally, even if there are no inaccuracies or omissions, we could be required to publicly disclose our management’s conclusion that our internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures are not effective. These events could

 

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cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, result in increased costs to remediate any deficiencies, attract regulatory scrutiny or lawsuits that could be costly to resolve and distract management’s attention, limit our ability to access the capital markets, adversely impact our stock price, or cause our stock to be delisted from The Nasdaq or any other securities exchange on which we are then listed.

We have indebtedness which could adversely affect our business and financial condition. With respect to the 2025 Senior Notes and 2026 Senior Notes, we are subject to risks relating to our existing or potential indebtedness that include:

Requirement to dedicate a portion of our cash flow to principal and interest payments, thereby reducing the availability of cash to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and investments and other general corporate purposes;
Difficulties to optimally capitalize and manage the cash flow for our businesses;
Possible competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt;
Limitations on our ability to borrow additional funds on acceptable terms or at all; and
Exposure to increased interest rates to the extent our outstanding debt is subject to variable rates of interest.

Failure to comply with the various covenants contained in our Credit Agreement and the 2025 Indenture could have a material adverse effect on our business. The various covenants contained in the Credit Agreement and 2025 Indenture include those that limit our ability to, among other things:

Incur indebtedness;
Pay dividends on, redeem or repurchase our capital stock;
Effect share repurchases;
Enter into secured financing arrangements;
Enter into sale and leaseback transactions; and
Enter into unrelated businesses.

These covenants may limit our ability to optimally operate our business. Any failure to comply with the restrictions of our Credit Facility or our 2025 Senior Notes and 2026 Senior Notes may result in an event of default under the agreements governing such debt instruments and such default may allow the creditors to accelerate the debt incurred thereunder. In addition, lenders under the Credit Facility may be able to terminate any commitments they had made to supply us with further funds.

We are subject to risks relating to our 2026 Senior Notes. If any of the conditions to the conversion of the 2026 Senior Notes is satisfied, then we may be required under applicable accounting standards to reclassify the liability carrying value of the 2026 Senior Notes as a current, rather than a long-term, liability, thereby materially reducing our reported working capital. This reclassification could be required even if no noteholders exchange their 2026 Senior Notes. Holders of our 2026 Senior Notes may convert the 2026 Senior Notes after the occurrence of certain dates or events. Settlement of the 2026 Senior Notes could adversely affect our liquidity.

We are subject to risks relating to the Capped Calls. In connection with the issuance of the 2026 Senior Notes, we entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions (the “Capped Calls”) to reduce potential dilution to our common stock and/or offset cash payments we must make in excess of the principal amount, in each case, upon any conversion of the 2026 Senior Notes, with such offset subject to a cap. We are subject to the risk that one or more of the hedge counterparties may default under the Capped Calls. If any of the hedge counterparties become subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under our transactions with such counterparties. Our exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, the increase in our exposure will be correlated to the increase in the market price and in the volatility of our common stock. In addition, upon a default by a hedge counterparty, we may suffer adverse tax consequences and more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock.

We may have future capital needs and may not be able to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms. Pursuant to the Credit Facility, we agreed to pledge substantially all of our assets, including the equity interests of our subsidiaries. This agreement also includes restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to secure additional financing in the future on favorable terms, if at all. Our ability to secure additional financing will also depend upon our future operating performance, which is subject to then prevailing general economic and credit market conditions, and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.

 

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Risks Related to Tax Matters

Our effective income tax rate is impacted by a number of factors that could have a material impact on our financial results and could increase the volatility of those results. Due to the global nature of our business, we are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and other foreign jurisdictions. In the event we incur taxable income in certain jurisdictions but incur losses in other jurisdictions, we generally cannot offset the income from one jurisdiction with the loss from another. This lack of flexibility could affect our effective income tax rate. Furthermore, significant judgment is required to calculate our worldwide provision for income taxes and depends on our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Our future income tax rates could be affected by a number of matters outside of our control, including but not limited to changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets or accounting for share-based compensation. If our effective income tax rates were to increase, our financial results and cash flows would be adversely affected.

Application of U.S. state and local or international tax laws, changes in tax laws or tax rulings, or the examination of our tax positions, could materially affect our financial position and results of operations. As an international business, we are subject to income taxes and non-income-based taxes in the U.S. and various other international jurisdictions. Tax laws are subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of the laws are issued or applied. Due to economic and political conditions, tax rates and tax regimes may be subject to significant change and the tax benefits that we intend to eventually derive could be undermined due to changing tax laws. Governments are increasingly focused on ways to increase tax revenues, which has contributed to more aggressive positions taken by tax authorities and an increase in tax legislation. Any such additional taxes or other assessments may be in excess of our current tax provisions or may require us to modify our business practices in order to reduce our exposure to additional taxes going forward, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Any changes to international tax laws or any additional reporting requirements may increase the complexity and costs associated with tax compliance and adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations.

Over the last several years, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) has been working on a Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project to address the tax challenges arising from digitalization. The OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework has issued various guidelines, policy notes, and proposals that if adopted could result in an overhaul of the international taxation system under which our current tax obligations are determined. In October 2021, more than 130 countries tentatively signed on to a framework, which calls for a minimum tax rate on corporations of 15% and a reallocation of profits from the largest and most profitable businesses to countries where they make sales. The proposed framework, once enacted, envisages new international tax rules and the removal of all digital services taxes. As this framework is subject to further negotiation and implementation by each member country, the timing and ultimate impact of any such changes on our tax obligations is uncertain. As the OECD/G20 continues to drive toward a consensus framework, several countries which have previously enacted unilateral digital services tax initiatives, such as France, Italy, Spain, and the U.K., will continue to impose these revenue-based taxes until implementation of the consensus framework. During the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, we recorded $9 million, $1 million and $2 million, respectively, of digital service tax to general and administrative expense on our consolidated statements of operations.

We are routinely under audit by federal, state and foreign taxing authorities. The ultimate outcome of these examinations (including the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS") audit described below) cannot be predicted with certainty but could be materially different from our income tax provisions and accruals and could have a material effect on our results of operations or cash flows in the period or periods for which that determination is made. Should the IRS or other taxing authorities assess additional taxes as a result of examinations, we may be required to record charges to our results of operations, which could harm our operating results and financial condition.

Changes in the tax treatment of companies engaged in e-commerce may adversely affect the commercial use of our platform and our financial results. Tax authorities at the international, federal, state and local levels are currently reviewing the appropriate treatment of companies engaged in e-commerce and it is possible that various jurisdictions may attempt to levy additional or new sales, income or other taxes relating to our activities. For example, Congress is considering various approaches to legislation that would require companies engaged in e-commerce to collect sales tax on internet revenue and a growing number of U.S. states and certain foreign

 

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jurisdictions have adopted or are considering proposals to impose obligations on remote sellers and online marketplaces to collect taxes on their behalf. Additionally, the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in South Dakota v. Wayfair Inc., in which a Court reversed longstanding precedent that remote sellers are not required to collect state and local sales taxes, may have an adverse impact on our business. Also, as described in more detail above, certain U.S. states and countries in which we do business have enacted or proposed digital services tax initiatives. New or revised international, federal, state or local tax regulations or court decisions may subject us or our customers to additional sales, occupancy, income and other taxes. We cannot predict the effect of these and other attempts to impose sales, income or other taxes on e-commerce; however, new or revised taxes and, in particular, sales taxes, occupancy taxes, value added taxes (“VAT”), and similar taxes would likely increase the cost of doing business online and decrease the attractiveness of selling products and services over the internet. New taxes could also create significant increases in internal costs necessary to capture data and collect and remit taxes. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial results and financial condition.

Taxing authorities may successfully assert that we should have collected or in the future should collect sales and use, occupancy, VAT or similar taxes, and we could be subject to liability with respect to past or future sales, which could adversely affect our operating results. We do not collect and remit sales and use, occupancy, VAT or similar taxes in all jurisdictions in which we have sales, based on our belief that such taxes are not applicable or legally required. Several states and other taxing jurisdictions have presented or threatened us with assessments, alleging that we are required to collect and remit certain taxes there. While we do not believe that we are subject to such taxes and intend to vigorously defend our position in these cases, we cannot be sure of the outcome of our discussions and/or appeals with these states. In the event of an adverse outcome, we could face assessments, plus any additional interest and penalties. We also expect additional jurisdictions may make similar assessments or pass similar new laws in the future, and any of the jurisdictions where we have sales may apply more rigorous enforcement efforts or take more aggressive positions in the future that could result in greater tax liability allegations. Such tax assessments, penalties and interest or future requirements may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

We continue to be subject to significant potential tax liabilities in connection with the Spin-Off. Under the Tax Sharing Agreement between us and Expedia entered into in connection with the Spin-Off, we are generally required to indemnify Expedia for any taxes resulting from the Spin-Off (and any related interest, penalties, legal and professional fees, and all costs and damages associated with related stockholder litigation or controversies). We continue to be responsible for potential tax liabilities in connection with consolidated income tax returns filed with Expedia prior to or in connection with the Spin-Off. By virtue of previously filed consolidated tax returns with Expedia, we are currently under IRS audit for the 2009, 2010, and short-period 2011 tax years and, in connection with that audit, have received Notices of Proposed Adjustment from the IRS which would result in an increase in our worldwide income tax expense. We have requested competent authority assistance under the Mutual Agreement Procedure (“MAP”) for tax years 2009 through 2011. The outcome of these matters or any other audits could subject us to significant tax liabilities. In January 2023, we received a final notice regarding a MAP settlement for the 2009 through 2011 tax years which we accepted in February 2023. In the first quarter of 2023, we will record additional tax expense as a discrete item, inclusive of interest, in an estimated range of $25 million to $35 million specifically related to this settlement.

We face risks associated with fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. As a result, we face exposure to movements in foreign currency exchange rates including, but not limited to, re-measurement of gains and losses from changes in the value of foreign denominated assets and liabilities; translation gains and losses on foreign subsidiary financial results that are translated into U.S. dollars upon consolidation; and planning risk related to changes in exchange rates between the time we prepare our annual and quarterly forecasts and when actual results occur. For example, in the event that one or more European countries were to replace the Euro with another currency, our sales into such countries, or into Europe generally, would likely be adversely affected until stable exchange rates are established. Accordingly, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, such as the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the Euro or the British pound, could adversely affect our revenue growth in future periods.

In the event of severe volatility in exchange rates, the impact of these exposures can increase and the impact on results of operations can be more pronounced. In addition, the current environment and the increasingly global nature of our business have made hedging these exposures more complex. We hedge certain short-term foreign currency exposures with the purchase of forward exchange contracts. These forward exchange contracts only help mitigate the impact of changes in foreign currency rates that occur during the term of the related contract period and

 

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carry risks of counter-party failure. There can be no assurance that our forward exchange contracts will have their intended effects.

Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock

Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc. currently is a controlling stockholder. Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc., or LTRIP, effectively controls the outcome of all matters submitted to a vote or for the consent of our stockholders (other than with respect to the election by the holders of our common stock of 25% of the members of our Board of Directors and matters as to which Delaware law requires separate class votes). Our Chairman, Gregory Maffei, and Director Albert Rosenthaler, also serve as officers and directors of LTRIP. LTRIP may have interests that differ from those of our other stockholders and may vote in a way with which our other stockholders may not agree or that may be adverse to other stockholders’ interests. LTRIP is not restricted from investing in other businesses related to our business. LTRIP’s control of us, as well as the provisions of our organizational documents and Delaware law, may discourage or prevent a change of control that might otherwise be beneficial, which may reduce the market price of our common stock.

The market price and trading volume of our common stock has experienced, and could continue to experience in the future, substantial volatility. The market price of our common stock is affected by a number of factors, including:

Quarterly variations in our or our competitors’ results of operations;
Changes in earnings estimates or recommendations by securities analysts;
Failure to meet market expectations;
The announcement of new products or product enhancements by us or our competitors;
Repurchases of our common stock;
Developments in our industry, including changes in governmental regulations; and
General market conditions and other factors.

In the past, the stock market has experienced price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations and general economic, political and market conditions, such as recessions, interest rate changes or foreign currency exchange fluctuations, may negatively impact the market price of our common stock regardless of our actual operating performance.

We are currently relying on the “controlled company” exemption under Nasdaq Stock Market Listing Rules, pursuant to which “controlled companies” are exempt from certain corporate governance requirements otherwise applicable under Nasdaq listing rules. The Nasdaq Stock Market Listing Rules exempt “controlled companies,” or companies of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by an individual, a group or another company, from certain corporate governance requirements. We currently rely on the controlled company exemption for certain of the above requirements, including the requirement that director nominees be selected or recommended to the Board of Directors by a majority of its independent directors or by a nominating committee that is composed entirely of independent directors. Accordingly, our stockholders will not be afforded the same protections generally as stockholders of other Nasdaq-listed companies with respect to corporate governance for so long as we rely on these exemptions from the corporate governance requirements.

We do not pay regular quarterly or annual cash dividends on our stock. Any determination to pay dividends is at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our results of operations, earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors. Therefore, investors should not rely on regular quarterly or annual dividend income from shares of our common stock and investors should not rely on special dividends with any regularity or at all.

Future sales of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, may depress our stock price. Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, particularly sales by our directors, officers, employees and significant stockholders, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impact our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional securities. In addition, certain stockholders have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that

 

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we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. A decline in the price of shares of our common stock might impede our ability to raise capital through the issuance of additional shares of our common stock or other equity securities.

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law may discourage or prevent a change of control, even if an acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders, which could affect our stock price adversely and prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

These provisions include:

Authorization and issuance of Class B common stock that entitles holders to ten votes per share;
Authorization of the issuance of preferred stock which can be created and issued by the Board of Directors without prior stockholder approval, with rights senior to those of our common stock;
Prohibition of our stockholders to fill board vacancies or call special stockholder meetings; and
Limitations on who may call special meetings of stockholders.

These and other provisions in our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and Delaware law could make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirers to obtain control of our Board of Directors or initiate actions that are opposed by our then-current Board of Directors, including a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving our company. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our Board of Directors could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

As of December 31, 2022, we do not own any real estate. We lease approximately 280,000 square feet of office space for our corporate headquarters in Needham, Massachusetts (the “Headquarters Lease”). The Headquarters Lease, has an expiration date of December 2030, with an option to extend the lease term for two consecutive terms of five years each. We also lease an aggregate of approximately 400,000 square feet of office space at approximately 30 locations across North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and South America, in cities such as New York, London, Sydney, Barcelona, Buenos Aires and Paris, primarily used as sales offices, subsidiary headquarters, and for international operations, pursuant to leases with various expiration dates. We believe that our current facilities are adequate for our current operations and that additional leased space can be obtained on reasonable terms if needed.

Refer to “Note 12: Commitments and Contingencies” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for further information on our legal proceedings. For an additional discussion of certain risks associated with legal proceedings, see “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 

 

 

25


 

PART II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock is quoted on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the ticker symbol “TRIP.” Our Class B common stock is not listed and there is no established public trading market for that security. As of February 10, 2023, all of our Class B common stock was held by LTRIP.

Performance Comparison Graph

The following graph provides a comparison of the total stockholder return from December 31, 2017 to December 31, 2022, of an investment of $100 in cash on December 31, 2017 for Tripadvisor, Inc. common stock and an investment of $100 in cash on December 31, 2017 for (i) the Standard and Poor’s 500 Index (the “S&P 500 Index”), (ii) The Nasdaq Composite Index, and (iii) the Research Data Group (“RDG”) Internet Composite Index. The RDG Internet Composite Index is an index of stocks representing the internet industry, including internet software and service companies and e-commerce companies. The stock price performance shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future price performance. Data for the S&P 500 Index, The Nasdaq Composite Index, and the RDG Internet Composite Index assume reinvestment of dividends.

https://cdn.kscope.io/1e2f18469816d786f0ac5be7a2592cc8-img264287973_0.jpg 

 

26


 

This performance comparison graph is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed filed with the SEC and is not deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Tripadvisor, Inc. under the Securities Act or any filing under the Exchange Act.

Holders of Record

As of February 10, 2023, there were 128,164,615 outstanding shares of our common stock held by 1,803 stockholders of record, and 12,799,999 outstanding shares of our Class B common stock held by one stockholder of record: LTRIP.

Dividends

We did not declare or pay any dividends during the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021, or 2020. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our results of operations, earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors. In addition, our ability to pay dividends was also limited by the terms of our Credit Agreement and our 2025 Indenture. Therefore, investors should not rely on regular quarterly or annual dividend income from shares of our common stock and investors should not rely on special dividends with any regularity, or at all. Investors should rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize future gains on their investments.

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

The information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to our 2023 Proxy Statement, which proxy statement will be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after the close of our fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

During the quarter ended December 31, 2022, we did not issue or sell any shares of our common stock, Class B common stock or other equity securities pursuant to unregistered transactions in reliance upon an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

During the quarter ended December 31, 2022, we did not repurchase any shares of our common stock under our existing share repurchase program. As of December 31, 2022, we had $75 million remaining available to repurchase shares of our common stock under our previously authorized share repurchase program.

While the Board of Directors has not suspended or terminated the share repurchase program, the terms of our Credit Agreement limit the Company from engaging in share repurchases and the terms of our 2025 Indenture related to our 2025 Senior Notes impose certain limitations and restrictions on share repurchases. In addition, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 imposes a 1% excise tax on certain corporate stock buybacks. Refer to “Note 9: Debt” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information about our Credit Agreement and our 2025 Indenture.

 

Item 6. [Reserved]

 

 

 

27


 

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis provides information concerning our results of operations and financial condition. This discussion should be read in conjunction with our accompanying consolidated financial statements and the notes in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Overview

The Tripadvisor group operates as a family of brands with a purpose of connecting people to experiences worth sharing. Our vision is to be the world’s most trusted source for travel and experiences. The Company operates across three reportable segments: Tripadvisor Core, Viator, and TheFork. We leverage our brands, technology platforms, and capabilities to connect our large, global audience with partners by offering rich content, travel guidance products and services, and two-sided marketplaces for experiences, accommodations, restaurants, and other travel categories.

Tripadvisor Core’s purpose is to empower everyone to be a better traveler by serving as the world’s most trusted and essential travel guidance platform. Since Tripadvisor’s founding in 2000, the Tripadvisor brand has developed a relationship of trust and community with travelers and experience seekers by providing an online global platform for travelers to discover, generate, and share authentic UGC in the form of ratings and reviews for destinations, POIs, experiences, accommodations, restaurants, and cruises in over 40 countries and over 20 languages across the world. As of December 31, 2022, Tripadvisor offered more than 1 billion user-generated ratings and reviews on nearly 8 million experiences, accommodations, restaurants, airlines, and cruises. Tripadvisor’s online platform attracts one of the world’s largest travel audiences, with hundreds of millions of visitors in 2022.

Viator’s purpose is to bring more wonder into the world—to bring extraordinary, unexpected, and forever memorable experiences to more people, more often, wherever they are traveling. In doing so, Viator elevates tens of thousands of businesses, large and small. Viator delivers on its purpose by enabling travelers to discover and book iconic, unique and memorable experiences from experience operators around the globe. Our online marketplace is comprehensive and easy-to-use, connecting millions of travelers to the world’s largest supply of bookable tours, activities and attractions—over 300,000 experiences from more than 50,000 operators as of December 31, 2022. Viator is a pure-play experiences OTA singularly focused on the needs of both travelers and operators with the largest supply of bookable experiences available to travelers.

TheFork’s purpose is to deliver happiness through amazing dining experiences. TheFork delivers on its purpose by providing an online marketplace that enables diners to discover and book online reservations at more than 55,000 restaurants in 12 countries, as of December 31, 2022, across the UK, western and central Europe, and Australia. TheFork has become an urban, gastronomic guide with a strong community that offers more than 20 million restaurant reviews.

 

Trends

The online travel industry in which we operate is large, highly dynamic and competitive. We describe below the impact on our business from COVID-19, other current trends affecting our business and reportable segments, including key drivers of our financial results, and uncertainties that may impact our ability to execute on our objectives and strategies.

COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative impact on the global economy and the travel, leisure, hospitality and restaurant industries in particular beginning in 2020. Since the beginning of the pandemic, the pervasiveness and severity of travel restrictions and stay-at-home directives have varied by country and state; however, as of December 31, 2022, most of the countries in which we operate had eased or completely lifted such restrictions. While the COVID-19 pandemic negatively and materially affected our results for the years ended

 

28


 

December 31, 2020 and 2021, in 2022, although some areas of our business recovered faster than others, as discussed below, we generally experienced a recovery in travel demand and our financial performance during 2022. Although all periods included in our consolidated financial statements presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K were impacted at varying degrees by the COVID-19 pandemic, none of these periods are considered comparable, and no periods affected by the pandemic are expected to be comparable to future periods. As a result, for additional context, below we provide information regarding our performance for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, before the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Our consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately $1.5 billion, an increase of 65%, when compared to the same period in 2021. In comparison to a pre-COVID-19 timeframe, consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately 96% of 2019’s comparable period, an increase from approximately 58% of 2019’s comparable period during the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily attributable to what we believe to be increased consumer travel demand for travel industry related services, combined with the easing of government travel restrictions. Revenue trends also improved as 2022 progressed, as consolidated revenue for the third and fourth quarter of 2022 exceeded parity with 2019's comparable periods, in comparison to approximately 70% and 99% of 2019’s comparable periods during the first and second quarters of 2022, respectively.

Tripadvisor Core revenue increased by 45% during the year ended December 31, 2022, when compared to the same period in 2021, despite the significant impact from the Omicron variant in the month of January 2022, as travel demand and revenue rebounded significantly during 2022. In comparison to a pre-COVID-19 timeframe, during the year ended December 31, 2022, Tripadvisor Core revenue reached approximately 79% of 2019’s comparable period, an increase from approximately 54% of 2019’s comparable period during 2021.

Tripadvisor-branded hotels revenue increased 44% during the year ended December 31, 2022, when compared to 2021, primarily driven by growth in hotel meta (formerly referred to as hotel auction). During 2022, Tripadvisor-branded hotels revenue reached approximately 83% of 2019’s comparable period, an increase from approximately 58% of 2019’s comparable period during 2021. The Company saw continued strength of recovery in our U.S. hotel meta revenue throughout 2022 on strong consumer travel demand, reaching parity with 2019’s comparable period during the year ended December 31, 2022. Revenue recovery in Europe and the rest of the world has been slower relative to the U.S. due to relative brand strength and recognition, but also due to uneven macroeconomic environments.

While slower to recover than Tripadvisor-branded hotels revenue, our Tripadvisor-branded display and platform revenue increased 33% during the year ended December 31, 2022, when compared to 2021. In comparison to a pre-COVID-19 timeframe, Tripadvisor-branded display and platform revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately 81% of 2019’s comparable period, an increase from approximately 61% of 2019’s comparable period in 2021. This improvement in 2022 was primarily driven by an increase in marketing spend from our advertisers in correlation with increasing consumer travel demand, as discussed above.

Our Tripadvisor experiences and dining revenue increased by 91% as a result of the travel demand recovery, combined with the easing of government restrictions, as well as the continued execution by our business, primarily driven by performance in our experiences offering as we continue to make investments in this offering to gain market share. In comparison to a pre-COVID-19 timeframe, Tripadvisor experiences and dining revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately 115% of 2019’s comparable period, an increase from approximately 60% of 2019’s comparable period in 2021.

Financial results in Other revenue also improved during the year ended December 31, 2022, when compared to 2021, primarily driven by similar trends of increased consumer travel demand as part of the global travel demand recovery. The offerings within Other revenue complement our Tripadvisor Core segment’s long-term strategy of delivering comprehensive guidance across the traveler journey. However, Other revenue during the year ended December 31, 2022 has been slower to recover when compared against 2019's comparable period as we continue to balance capital deployment across our portfolio that align with our strategic priorities across the segment. We have also divested certain offerings within Other revenue since 2019.

 

29


 

We began to see improvement in our Viator segment’s financial results during the third quarter of 2021, and this trend has continued throughout 2022, as revenue increased by 168% during the year ended December 31, 2022, when compared to 2021, primarily driven by the consumer demand recovery across all geographies, in conjunction with the lifting of various government restrictions on experience activities and the travel industry recovery, as well as continued execution by our business. In comparison to a pre-COVID-19 timeframe, our Viator segment revenue for 2022 was approximately 171% of 2019’s comparable period, an increase from approximately 64% of 2019’s comparable period in 2021.

During the first quarter of 2021, restaurants in most of the European countries in which TheFork operates were ordered to remain closed. In TheFork segment, we saw a notable recovery beginning in mid-May 2021, as restaurants in most European countries in which TheFork operates began reopening for in-restaurant dining. However, late in the fourth quarter of 2021 and early into the first quarter of 2022, Omicron-related restrictions and related impact to consumer demand within Europe again negatively impacted TheFork. These Omicron-related restrictions were again lifted late in the first quarter of 2022, bringing a recovery of consumer demand and revenue, although European consumer demand and restaurant openings remained below pre-pandemic levels through 2022. TheFork segment revenue during 2022 increased by approximately 48%, primarily driven by improving consumer demand, when compared to 2021. In comparison to a pre-COVID-19 timeframe, TheFork revenue for 2022 was approximately 99% of 2019’s comparable period, an increase from approximately 67% of 2019’s comparable period in 2021.

Other Current Trends

In response to increased consumer travel demand, we increased our performance marketing investments in 2022 across the Tripadvisor group. In Tripadvisor Core, we observed strong performance in hotel meta primarily driven by increased CPC pricing during 2022. This environment allowed us to increase performance marketing at a profitable ROAS (return on advertising spend), while our direct traffic, including SEO, has been slower to recover. Historically, we have generated a significant amount of direct traffic from search engines, such as Google, through strong SEO performance. We believe our SEO traffic acquisition performance has been negatively impacted in the past, and may be impacted in the future by search engines (primarily Google) increasing the prominence of their own products in search results. Over the long-term, we are focused on driving a greater percentage of our traffic from direct sources and channels that are more profitable than performance marketing channels.

The global experiences market is large, growing, and highly fragmented, with the vast majority of bookings still occurring through traditional offline sources. We are observing a secular shift, however, as this market continues to grow and moves online faster. We are observing similar trends in terms of online adoption by both consumers and partners in the global restaurants category, particularly in Europe. Given the competitive positioning of our businesses relative to the attractive growth prospects in these categories, we expect to continue to invest in these categories across the Tripadvisor group, and in particular, within Viator and TheFork, to continue accelerating revenue growth, operating scale, and market share gains for the long-term.

For information regarding our business strategy and business models, see the discussion set forth in Part I, Item 1. “Business,” of this Form 10-K under the captions “Our Business Strategy”, and “Our Business Models.”

Consolidated Results of Operations

In the second quarter of 2022, as part of our continuous review of the business and in consultation with our CEO, who also serves as our CODM, we evaluated our operations and realigned the reportable segment information which our CODM regularly assesses to evaluate performance for operating decision-making purposes, including allocation of resources. The revised segment reporting structure includes the following reportable segments: (1) Tripadvisor Core; (2) Viator; and (3) TheFork. For further information, including the change in segments and principal revenue streams within these segments, refer to “Note 3: Revenue Recognition” and “Note 19: Segment and Geographic Information” in the notes to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. All prior period segment disclosure information has been reclassified to conform to the current reporting structure in this Form 10-K. These reclassifications had no effect on our consolidated financial statements in any period.

 

30


 

During the fourth quarter of 2022, the Company was the subject of a targeted fraud scheme, resulting in the payment of refunds to an external party for products which were fraudulently subscribed within Tripadvisor Core. As a result, the Company incurred a loss of approximately $8 million, which was recorded to general and administrative expense on the consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022. These fraudulent transactions had no impact on revenue, as the fraudulent subscriptions were cancelled in a timely manner by the Company. Operating process changes were put into place to provide further safeguards against this type of activity happening in the future. Although we continue to vigorously pursue recovery of our losses and related expenses arising from this incident, there can be no assurance of recovery or of the timing of any such recovery.

A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for fiscal year 2022 compared to fiscal year 2021 is presented below. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020 can be found in Part II, Item 7. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 18, 2022.

As noted above, during the second quarter of 2022, we revised our segment reporting structure. We did not include a discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020, as we believe the changes in our reportable segments is not a material change to understand the financial condition, changes in financial conditions, and results of operations of our revised reportable segments due to the impact of COVID-19 during those years, which is discussed above.

 

Results of Operations

Selected Financial Data

(in millions, except percentages)

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

% Change

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2022 vs. 2021

 

 

2021 vs. 2020

 

Revenue

 

$

1,492

 

 

$

902

 

 

$

604

 

 

 

65

%

 

 

49

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue

 

 

116

 

 

 

74

 

 

 

55

 

 

 

57

%

 

 

35

%

Selling and marketing

 

 

784

 

 

 

469

 

 

 

316

 

 

 

67

%

 

 

48

%

Technology and content

 

 

222

 

 

 

212

 

 

 

220

 

 

 

5

%

 

 

(4

)%

General and administrative

 

 

172

 

 

 

167

 

 

 

173

 

 

 

3

%

 

 

(3

)%

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

97

 

 

 

111

 

 

 

125

 

 

 

(13

)%

 

 

(11

)%

Impairment of goodwill

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

n.m.

 

 

n.m.

 

Restructuring and other related reorganization costs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41

 

 

n.m.

 

 

n.m.

 

Total costs and expenses:

 

 

1,391

 

 

 

1,033

 

 

 

933

 

 

 

35

%

 

 

11

%

Operating income (loss)

 

 

101

 

 

 

(131

)

 

 

(329

)

 

n.m.

 

 

 

(60

)%

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense

 

 

(44

)

 

 

(45

)

 

 

(35

)

 

 

(2

)%

 

 

29

%

Interest income

 

 

15

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

1400

%

 

 

(67

)%

Other income (expense), net

 

 

(5

)

 

 

(10

)

 

 

(8

)

 

 

(50

)%

 

 

25

%

Total other income (expense), net

 

 

(34

)

 

 

(54

)

 

 

(40

)

 

 

(37

)%

 

 

35

%

Income (loss) before income taxes

 

 

67

 

 

 

(185

)

 

 

(369

)

 

n.m.

 

 

 

(50

)%

(Provision) benefit for income taxes

 

 

(47

)

 

 

37

 

 

 

80

 

 

n.m.

 

 

 

(54

)%

Net income (loss)

 

$

20

 

 

$

(148

)

 

$

(289

)

 

n.m.

 

 

 

(49

)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other financial data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA (1)

 

$

295

 

 

$

100

 

 

$

(51

)

 

 

195

%

 

n.m.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n.m. = not meaningful

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) Adjusted EBITDA is considered a non-GAAP measure as defined by the SEC. Please refer to “Adjusted EBITDA” below for more information, including tabular reconciliations to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.

 

 

 

31


 

 

Revenue and Segment Information

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

% Change

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2022 vs. 2021

 

 

2021 vs. 2020

 

Revenue by Segment:

 

(in millions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tripadvisor Core (1)

 

$

966

 

 

$

665

 

 

$

483

 

 

 

45

%

 

 

38

%

Viator

 

 

493

 

 

 

184

 

 

 

55

 

 

 

168

%

 

 

235

%

TheFork

 

 

126

 

 

 

85

 

 

 

86

 

 

 

48

%

 

 

(1

)%

Intersegment Eliminations (1)

 

 

(93

)

 

 

(32

)

 

 

(20

)

 

 

191

%

 

 

60

%

Total revenue

 

$

1,492