trip-10q_20180331.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 10-Q

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2018

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                      

Commission file number: 001-35362

 

TRIPADVISOR, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

80-0743202

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

400 1st Avenue

Needham, MA 02494

(Address of principal executive office) (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:

(781) 800-5000

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  (Do not check if a small reporting company)

  

Small reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

 

Class

 

Outstanding Shares at May 4, 2018

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share

 

124,603,606 shares

Class B common stock, $0.001 par value per share

 

12,799,999 shares

 

 

 

 


 

TripAdvisor, Inc.

Form 10-Q

For the Quarter Ended March 31, 2018

Table of Contents

 

 

  

Page

Part I—Financial Information

 

  

 

Item 1. Unaudited Condensed Financial Statements

 

  

 

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017

  

3

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017

  

4

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017

  

5

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statement of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2018

  

6

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017

  

7

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

  

8

 

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

  

25

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

  

39

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

  

40

 

Part II—Other Information

  

 

 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

  

40

Item 1A. Risk Factors

  

40

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

  

55

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

  

56

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

  

56

Item 5. Other Information

  

56

Item 6. Exhibits

  

57

 

Signatures

  

58

 

 

 

2


 

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

 

TRIPADVISOR, INC.

UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(in millions, except per share amounts)

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Revenue (Note 3)

 

$

378

 

 

$

372

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue (1)

 

 

20

 

 

 

17

 

Selling and marketing (2)

 

 

198

 

 

 

207

 

Technology and content (2)

 

 

67

 

 

 

59

 

General and administrative (2)

 

 

42

 

 

 

35

 

Depreciation

 

 

20

 

 

 

19

 

Amortization of intangible assets

 

 

8

 

 

 

8

 

Total costs and expenses:

 

 

355

 

 

 

345

 

Operating income

 

 

23

 

 

 

27

 

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense

 

 

(3

)

 

 

(3

)

Interest income and other, net

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

Total other expense, net

 

 

(2

)

 

 

(2

)

Income before income taxes

 

 

21

 

 

 

25

 

Provision for income taxes

 

 

(16

)

 

 

(12

)

Net income

 

$

5

 

 

$

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earnings per share attributable to common stockholders (Note 4):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

0.04

 

 

$

0.09

 

Diluted

 

$

0.04

 

 

$

0.09

 

Weighted average common shares outstanding (Note 4):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

139

 

 

 

144

 

Diluted

 

 

140

 

 

 

145

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) Excludes amortization as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amortization of acquired technology included in amortization of intangible assets

 

$

2

 

 

$

2

 

Amortization of website development costs included in depreciation

 

 

15

 

 

 

12

 

 

 

$

17

 

 

$

14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2) Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows (Note 5):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selling and marketing

 

$

6

 

 

$

5

 

Technology and content

 

$

12

 

 

$

7

 

General and administrative

 

$

11

 

 

$

7

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

3


 

TRIPADVISOR, INC.

UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

(in millions)

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Net income

 

$

5

 

 

$

13

 

Other comprehensive income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign currency translation adjustments (1)

 

 

8

 

 

 

7

 

Total other comprehensive income

 

 

8

 

 

 

7

 

Comprehensive income

 

$

13

 

 

$

20

 

 

 

 

(1)

Foreign currency translation adjustments exclude income taxes due to our intention to indefinitely reinvest the earnings of our foreign subsidiaries in those operations.  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

4


 

TRIPADVISOR, INC.

UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(in millions, except number of shares and per share amounts)

 

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

 

2018

 

 

 

2017

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents (Note 6)

 

$

635

 

 

$

673

 

Short-term marketable securities (Note 6)

 

 

15

 

 

 

35

 

Accounts receivable and contract assets, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $17 and $16, respectively

 

 

281

 

 

 

230

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

52

 

 

 

55

 

Total current assets

 

 

983

 

 

 

993

 

Long-term marketable securities (Note 6)

 

 

5

 

 

 

27

 

Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $198 and $177, respectively

 

 

261

 

 

 

263

 

Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization of $120 and $112, respectively

 

 

136

 

 

 

142

 

Goodwill

 

 

763

 

 

 

758

 

Deferred income taxes, net

 

 

18

 

 

 

16

 

Other long-term assets

 

 

74

 

 

 

73

 

TOTAL ASSETS

 

$

2,240

 

 

$

2,272

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

7

 

 

$

8

 

Deferred merchant payables

 

 

269

 

 

 

156

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

101

 

 

 

60

 

Current portion of debt (Note 7)

 

 

7

 

 

 

7

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

150

 

 

 

141

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

534

 

 

 

372

 

Long-term debt (Note 7)

 

 

 

 

 

230

 

Deferred income taxes, net

 

 

16

 

 

 

14

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

 

300

 

 

 

293

 

Total Liabilities

 

 

850

 

 

 

909

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity: (Note 10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value

 

 

 

 

 

 

Authorized shares: 100,000,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares issued and outstanding: 0 and 0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value

 

 

 

 

 

 

Authorized shares: 1,600,000,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares issued: 136,396,872 and 135,617,263, respectively

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares outstanding: 126,669,732 and 126,142,773, respectively

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class B common stock, $0.001 par value

 

 

 

 

 

 

Authorized shares: 400,000,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares issued and outstanding: 12,799,999 and 12,799,999, respectively

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

946

 

 

 

926

 

Retained earnings

 

 

935

 

 

 

926

 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

 

(34

)

 

 

(42

)

Treasury stock-common stock, at cost, 9,727,140 and 9,474,490 shares, respectively

 

 

(457

)

 

 

(447

)

Total Stockholders’ Equity

 

 

1,390

 

 

 

1,363

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

 

$

2,240

 

 

$

2,272

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

5


 

TRIPADVISOR, INC.

UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2018

(in millions, except number of shares)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional

 

 

 

 

 

 

other

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class B

 

 

paid-in

 

 

Retained

 

 

comprehensive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock

 

 

common stock

 

 

capital

 

 

earnings

 

 

income (loss)

 

 

Treasury Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Total

 

Balance as of December 31, 2017

 

 

135,617,263

 

 

$

-

 

 

 

12,799,999

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

926

 

 

$

926

 

 

$

(42

)

 

 

(9,474,490

)

 

$

(447

)

 

$

1,363

 

Net income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

Cumulative effect adjustment from adoption of new accounting guidance (Note 2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

 

Issuance of common stock related to exercises of options and vesting of RSUs

 

 

779,609

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

Repurchase of common stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(252,650

)

 

 

(10

)

 

 

(10

)

Withholding taxes on net share settlements of equity awards

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(12

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(12

)

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32

 

Balance as of March 31, 2018

 

 

136,396,872

 

 

$

-

 

 

 

12,799,999

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

946

 

 

$

935

 

 

$

(34

)

 

 

(9,727,140

)

 

$

(457

)

 

$

1,390

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

6


 

TRIPADVISOR, INC.

UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(in millions)

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income

 

$

5

 

 

$

13

 

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation of property and equipment, including amortization of internal-use

   software and website development

 

 

20

 

 

 

19

 

Amortization of intangible assets

 

 

8

 

 

 

8

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

29

 

 

 

19

 

Other, net

 

 

-

 

 

 

6

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of effects from acquisitions:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable, prepaid expenses and other assets

 

 

(55

)

 

 

(35

)

Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities

 

 

-

 

 

 

(8

)

Deferred merchant payables

 

 

110

 

 

 

88

 

Income tax receivables/payables, net

 

 

15

 

 

 

-

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

42

 

 

 

24

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

 

174

 

 

 

134

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital expenditures, including internal-use software and website development

 

 

(15

)

 

 

(18

)

Purchases of marketable securities

 

 

(1

)

 

 

-

 

Sales of marketable securities

 

 

41

 

 

 

102

 

Maturities of marketable securities

 

 

3

 

 

 

14

 

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

 

28

 

 

 

98

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Repurchase of common stock

 

 

(4

)

 

 

(150

)

Proceeds from 2015 credit facility

 

 

5

 

 

 

270

 

Payments to 2015 credit facility

 

 

(235

)

 

 

(151

)

Payments to 2016 credit facility

 

 

-

 

 

 

(73

)

Proceeds from exercise of stock options

 

 

-

 

 

 

3

 

Payment of withholding taxes on net share settlements of equity awards

 

 

(12

)

 

 

(13

)

Net cash used in financing activities

 

 

(246

)

 

 

(114

)

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

6

 

 

 

1

 

Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

(38

)

 

 

119

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

 

 

673

 

 

 

612

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

 

$

635

 

 

$

731

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation capitalized with internal-use software and website development costs

 

$

3

 

 

$

3

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 


7


 

TRIPADVISOR, INC.

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 1: BUSINESS DESCRIPTION AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION

We refer to TripAdvisor, Inc. and our wholly-owned subsidiaries as “TripAdvisor”, “the Company”, “us”, “we” and “our” in these notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

Description of Business

TripAdvisor is an online travel company and our mission is to help people around the world to plan, book and experience the perfect trip. We seek to achieve our mission by providing users and travel partners a global platform about destinations, accommodations, travel activities and experiences, and restaurants that encompasses rich user-generated content, price comparison tools and online reservation and related services.

TripAdvisor, Inc., by and through its subsidiaries, owns and operates a portfolio of leading online travel brands. Our flagship brand is TripAdvisor. TripAdvisor-branded websites include tripadvisor.com in the United States and localized versions of the website in 48 markets and 28 languages worldwide. In addition to the flagship TripAdvisor brand, we manage and operate the following 20 other travel media brands, connected by the common goal of providing users the most comprehensive travel-planning and trip-taking resources in the travel industry: www.airfarewatchdog.com, www.bookingbuddy.com, www.citymaps.com, www.cruisecritic.com, www.familyvacationcritic.com, www.flipkey.com, www.thefork.com (including www.lafourchette.com, www.eltenedor.com, www.iens.nl, and www.dimmi.com.au), www.gateguru.com, www.holidaylettings.co.uk, www.holidaywatchdog.com, www.housetrip.com, www.jetsetter.com, www.niumba.com, www.onetime.com, www.oyster.com, www.seatguru.com, www.smartertravel.com, www.tingo.com, www.vacationhomerentals.com, and www.viator.com.

We manage our business in two reportable segments: Hotel and Non-Hotel. Our Non-Hotel segment consists of our Experiences, Restaurants, and Rentals offerings. During the quarter we renamed Attractions as “Experiences” and Vacation Rentals as “Rentals.” These changes had no impact on the composition of our segments or on any financial information. For further information on our segments and principal revenue streams within these segments refer to “Note 3: Revenue Recognition” and “Note 12: Segment Information,” in the notes to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.  

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements present our results of operations, financial position and cash flows on a consolidated basis. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include TripAdvisor, our wholly-owned subsidiaries, and entities we control, or in which we have a variable interest and are the primary beneficiary of expected cash profits or losses. All inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. One of our subsidiaries that operates in China has variable interests in affiliated entities in China in order to comply with Chinese laws and regulations, which restrict foreign investment in Internet content provision businesses. Although we do not own the capital stock of these Chinese affiliates, we consolidate their results as we are the primary beneficiary of the cash losses or profits of these variable interest affiliates and have the power to direct the activity of these affiliates. Our variable interest entities’ financials were not material for all periods presented.

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and include all normal and recurring adjustments that management of the Company considers necessary for a fair presentation of its financial position and operating results. We prepared the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements following the requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for interim reporting. As permitted under those rules, we condensed or omitted certain footnotes or other financial information that are normally required by GAAP for annual financial statements. Additionally, certain prior period amounts have been reclassified for comparability with the current period presentation. Our interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for any other interim period or for the full year. These interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, previously filed with the SEC. The unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2017 included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures including notes required by GAAP.

Accounting Estimates

We use estimates and assumptions in the preparation of our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. Our estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. These estimates and

8


 

assumptions also affect the reported amount of net income or loss during any period. Our actual financial results could differ significantly from these estimates. The significant estimates underlying our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include: (i) recognition and recoverability of goodwill, definite-lived intangibles and other long-lived assets; and (ii) accounting for income taxes.

Seasonality

Traveler expenditures in the global travel market tend to follow a seasonal pattern. As such, expenditures by travel partners/advertisers to market to potential travelers and, therefore our financial performance, or revenue and profits, tend to be seasonal as well. Our financial performance tends to be seasonally highest in the second and third quarters of a year, as it is a key period for leisure travel research and trip-taking, which includes the seasonal peak in traveler hotel and rental stays, and tours and experiences taken, compared to the first and fourth quarters which represent seasonal low points. Further significant shifts in our business mix or adverse economic conditions could result in future seasonal patterns that are different from historical trends.

 

NOTE 2: SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

New Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

 

In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standard Board (“FASB”) issued new accounting guidance on the measurement of credit losses for financial assets measured at amortized cost, which includes accounts receivable, and available-for-sale debt securities. For financial assets measured at amortized cost, this new guidance requires an entity to: (1) estimate its lifetime expected credit losses upon recognition of the financial assets and establish an allowance to present the net amount expected to be collected; (2) recognize this allowance and changes in the allowance during subsequent periods through net income; and (3) consider relevant information about past events, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts in assessing the lifetime expected credit losses. For available-for-sale debt securities, this new guidance made several targeted amendments to the existing other-than-temporary impairment model, including: (1) requiring disclosure of the allowance for credit losses; (2) allowing reversals of the previously recognized credit losses until the entity has the intent to sell, is more-likely-than-not required to sell the securities or the maturity of the securities; (3) limiting impairment to the difference between the amortized cost basis and fair value; and (4) not allowing entities to consider the length of time that fair value has been less than amortized cost as a factor in evaluating whether a credit loss exists. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted, including interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. We are currently considering our timing of adoption and in the process of evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued new guidance related to accounting for leases. The new standard requires the recognition of assets (right-of-use-assets) and liabilities arising from lease transactions on the balance sheet and the disclosure of key information about leasing arrangements. Accordingly, a lessee will recognize a lease asset for its right to use the underlying asset and a lease liability for the corresponding lease obligation. Both the asset and liability will initially be measured at the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term. The new guidance will classify leases as either finance or operating leases, with classification determining the presentation of expenses and cash flows on our consolidated financial statements. Initial costs directly attributable to negotiating and arranging the lease will be included in the asset. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee can make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset to not recognize an asset and corresponding liability. The transition guidance also provides specific guidance for sale and leaseback transactions, build-to-suit leases and amounts previously recognized in accordance with the business combinations guidance for leases. We will also be required to provide additional qualitative and quantitative disclosures regarding the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases which include, among other things, the computation and disclosure of our weighted average remaining lease term and discount rate, cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities, and supplemental non-cash information on lease liabilities arising from obtaining the right-of-use assets. These disclosures are intended to provide supplemental information to the amounts recorded in the financial statements so that users can better understand the nature of an entity’s leasing activities. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted, which will require the recognition and measurement of leases at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements using a modified retrospective approach. We anticipate adopting this new guidance in the first quarter of 2019.

 

We continue to evaluate the new lease guidance and are in the process of updating accounting policies, accounting position memos, and evaluating our existing population of contracts to ensure all contracts that meet the definition of a lease contract under the new standard are identified. We are also in the process of implementing additional lease software to support our accounting and reporting process, including the new quantitative and qualitative financial disclosure requirements. In addition, we are evaluating the impact of the system implementation and new accounting guidance on our internal controls. We will continue to provide updates on our assessment of the effect that this new lease guidance will have on our consolidated financial statements, disclosures, systems and

9


 

related internal controls, and will disclose material effects, if any, when known.

 

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

 

In May 2017, the FASB issued new accounting guidance that clarifies when changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award must be accounted for as modifications which will reduce diversity in practice. Under the new guidance, an entity will not apply modification accounting to a share-based payment award if the award’s fair value (or calculated value or intrinsic value, if those measurement methods are used), the award’s vesting conditions, and the award’s classification as an equity or liability instrument are the same immediately before and after the change. The guidance also states that an entity is not required to estimate the value of the award immediately before and after the change if the change does not affect any of the inputs to the model used to value the award. We adopted this guidance prospectively in the first quarter of 2018. We believe the new guidance will likely result in fewer changes to the terms of an award being accounted for as modifications.  

 

In January 2017, the FASB issued new accounting guidance to clarify the definition of a business and provide additional guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as asset acquisitions (or asset disposals) or business combinations (or disposals of a business). Under this new guidance, an entity first determines whether substantially all of the fair value of the assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets. If this criterion is met, the transaction should be accounted for as an asset acquisition as opposed to a business combination. This distinction is important because the accounting for an asset acquisition significantly differs from the accounting for a business combination. This new guidance eliminates the requirement to evaluate whether a market participant could replace missing elements (e.g. inputs or processes), narrows the definition of outputs and requires that a business include, at a minimum, an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs. We adopted this guidance in the first quarter of 2018 and it will be applied prospectively to any transactions occurring within and after the adoption date.

 

In November 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance on the classification and presentation of restricted cash in the statement of cash flows to address the diversity in practice. This new guidance requires entities to show changes in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash on a combined basis in the statement of cash flows. In addition, this accounting guidance requires a reconciliation of the total cash, cash equivalent and restricted cash in the statement of cash flows to the related captions in the balance sheet if cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash are presented in more than one line item in the balance sheet. We adopted this guidance in the first quarter of 2018 and applied it retrospectively to all prior periods presented in the financial statements as required under the new guidance. The adoption did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

In October 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance on income tax accounting associated with intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory. This accounting update, which is part of the FASB's simplification initiative, is intended to reduce diversity in practice and the complexity of tax accounting, particularly for those transfers involving intellectual property. This new guidance requires an entity to recognize the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs. We adopted this new guidance in the first quarter of 2018 on a modified retrospective basis. Accordingly, we recognized the cumulative effect of initial application of this new guidance as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings, which was not material to our consolidated financial statements.

 

In August 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance which clarifies how companies present and classify certain cash receipts and cash payments in the statement of cash flows. The new guidance specifically addresses the following cash flow topics in an effort to reduce diversity in practice: (1) debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs; (2) settlement of zero-coupon bonds; (3) contingent consideration payments made after a business combination; (4) proceeds from the settlement of insurance claims; (5) proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies, including bank-owned life insurance policies; (6) distributions received from equity method investees; (7) beneficial interests in securitization transactions; and (8) separately identifiable cash flows and application of the predominance principle. We adopted this new guidance in the first quarter of 2018 retrospectively and the adoption did not have an impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

In January 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance which amends the standard on the recognition and measurement of financial instruments. The FASB clarified certain aspects of this guidance by issuing an update for technical corrections and improvements related to this guidance in February 2018. The guidance (1) requires an entity to measure equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method or those that result in consolidation of the investee) at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income rather than accumulated other comprehensive income on the balance sheet; (2) allows an entity to elect to measure the equity investments that do not have a readily determinable fair value using a new measurement alternative which measure these equity investments at cost less impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer; (3) simplifies the impairment assessment of equity investments without readily determinable fair values by requiring a qualitative assessment to identify impairment; and (4) clarifies that an entity should evaluate the need for a valuation allowance on a deferred tax asset related to available-for-sale securities in

10


 

combination with the entity’s evaluation of their other deferred tax assets. We adopted this guidance in the first quarter of 2018 and elected to prospectively account for our investments in equity securities of privately-held companies that do not have a readily determinable fair value using the measurement alternative. The adoption did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

In May 2014, the FASB issued new accounting guidance on revenue from contracts with customers, or ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”), which replaced numerous requirements in GAAP, and provides companies with a single model for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers. The core principle of the new standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. This guidance also requires additional disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. In addition, the FASB has also issued several amendments to the standard, which clarifies certain aspects of the guidance, including principal versus agent considerations and identifying performance obligations.

 

In the first quarter of 2018, we adopted ASC 606 under the modified retrospective method for all contracts that were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under the new revenue guidance, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our previous accounting policies under the historical revenue guidance, or ASC 605, Revenue Recognition.

 

We evaluated each of our revenue streams and applied ASC 606 as further discussed in “Note 3: Revenue Recognition.” As a result of adoption of the new revenue guidance, certain revenue streams, such as the instant booking revenue recorded under the consumption model which we previously recorded upon completion of the traveler stay, is now recognized upon booking. The amount of the recognized transaction price is recorded as revenue net of the impact of estimated cancellations. We also recorded an adjustment to capitalize certain costs to obtain contracts for existing arrangements as of the implementation date. We expect the adoption of this new revenue standard will not have a material impact, either on an annual or quarterly basis, to our consolidated financial statements on an ongoing basis. Our systems and internal controls were not significantly impacted as a result of the accounting changes and we have made the necessary changes to our accounting policies and internal processes to support the new revenue recognition standard, including the related disclosures.  

 

We recognized the cumulative effect of initial application of ASC 606 as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings. We recorded a net increase in opening retained earnings of $4 million as of January 1, 2018 due to the cumulative impact of adoption of the new revenue guidance and all other accounts were not materially impacted.

There have been no changes to our significant accounting policies since December 31, 2017, other than noted above. See “Note 3: Revenue Recognition” below for further discussion about our revenue recognition policies under ASC 606. For additional information about our significant accounting policies and estimates, refer to “Note 2: Significant Accounting Policies”, in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

 

NOTE 3: REVENUE RECOGNITION

Revenue Recognition under ASC 606

 

We generate all of our revenue from contracts with customers. We recognize revenue when we satisfy a performance obligation by transferring control of the promised services to a customer in an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those services. When we act as an agent in the transaction under ASC 606, we recognize revenue for only our commission on the arrangement. We determine revenue recognition through the following steps:

 

(1)

Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer

(2)

Identification of the performance obligations in the contract

(3)

Determination of the transaction price

(4)

Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract

(5)

Recognition of revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation.

 

At contract inception, we assess the services promised in our contracts with customers and identify a performance obligation for each promise to transfer to the customer a service (or bundle of services) that is distinct. To identify the performance obligations, we consider all of the services promised in the contract regardless of whether they are explicitly stated or are implied by customary business practices. We have provided qualitative information about our performance obligations for our principal revenue streams

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discussed below. There was no significant revenue recognized in the three months ended March 31, 2018 related to performance obligations satisfied in prior periods. We have applied a practical expedient and do not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations that have an original expected duration of less than one year, and we do not have any material unsatisfied performance obligations over one year. The value related to our remaining or partially satisfied performance obligations relates to subscription services that are satisfied over time or services that are recognized at a point in time, but not yet achieved. Our timing of services, invoicing and payments are discussed in more detail below and do not include a significant financing component. Our customer invoices are generally due 30 days from the time of invoicing.

We recognize an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer if we expect the benefit of those costs to be longer than one year. We have determined that certain sales incentive programs meet the requirements to be capitalized. Total capitalized costs to obtain a contract were approximately $1 million as of March 31, 2018. We amortize these contract costs on a straight-line basis over the estimated customer life, which is based on historical data. Amortization expense recorded to sales and marketing during the three months ended March 31, 2018 was not material. We assess such assets for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.

The recognition of revenue may require the application of judgment related to the determination of the performance obligations, the timing of when the performance obligations are satisfied and other areas. The determination of our performance obligations does not require significant judgment given that we generally do not provide multiple services to a customer in a given transaction, and the point in which control is transferred to the customer is readily determinable. In instances where we recognize revenue over time, we generally have either a subscription service that is recognized over time on a straight-line basis using the time-elapsed output method, or based on other output measures that provide a faithful depiction of the transfer of our services. When an estimate for cancellations is included in the transaction price, we base our estimate on historical data. The estimate is not material. Taxes assessed by a government authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue –producing transaction, that are collected by us from a customer, are reported on a net basis, or in other words excluded from revenue on our consolidated financial statements, which is consistent with prior periods. The application of our revenue recognition policies and a description of our principal activities, organized by segment, from which we generate our revenue, are presented below.  

 

Hotel Segment

TripAdvisor-branded Click-based Advertising and Transaction Revenue. Our largest source of Hotel segment revenue is generated from click-based advertising on TripAdvisor-branded websites, which is primarily comprised of contextually-relevant booking links to our travel partners’ sites. Our click-based travel partners are predominantly online travel agencies, or OTAs, and direct suppliers in the hotel category. Click-based advertising is generally priced on a cost-per-click, or “CPC”, basis, with payments from advertisers determined by the number of users who click on a link multiplied by the price that partner is willing to pay for that click, or hotel shopper lead. CPC rates that our travel partners are willing to pay are determined in a dynamic, competitive auction process, or metasearch auction. We record click-based advertising revenue as the click occurs and traveler leads are sent to the travel partner websites as our performance obligation is fulfilled at that time. Click-based revenue is generally billed to our travel partners on a monthly basis consistent with the timing of the service.

Transaction revenue is generated from our instant booking feature, which enables hotel shoppers to book directly with a travel partner, or the merchant of record, without leaving our website.  We earn a commission from our travel partner for a user that completes a hotel reservation on our website. Our instant booking revenue includes arrangements where commissions are billable on all instant booking hotel reservations and also includes arrangements where the commission is billable only upon the completion of the traveler’s stay resulting from the reservation. Our performance obligation in both arrangements is complete at the time of the booking and the commission earned is recognized upon booking, as we have no post-booking service obligations. The amount of revenue recognized for commissions which are billable contingent upon a travelers stay requires an estimate of the impact of cancellations using historical cancellation rates. Contract assets are recognized at the time of booking for commissions that are billable at the time of stay. We are the agent in these transactions under ASC 606.

TripAdvisor-branded Display-based Advertising and Subscription Revenue. Travel partners can promote their brands in a contextually-relevant manner through a variety of display-based advertising placements on our websites. Our display-based advertising clients are predominately direct suppliers of hotels, airlines and cruises, as well as destination marketing organizations. We also sell display-based advertising to OTAs and other travel related businesses, as well as advertisers from non-travel categories. Display-based advertising is sold predominantly on a cost per thousand impressions, or CPM, basis. The performance obligation in our display-based advertising business is to display a number of advertising impressions on our websites and we recognize revenue for impressions as they are delivered. Services are generally billed monthly. We have applied the practical expedient to measure progress toward completion, as we have the right to invoice the customer in an amount that directly corresponds with the value to the customer of our performance to date, which is measured based on impressions delivered.

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In addition, we offer subscription-based advertising to hotels, B&Bs and other specialty lodging properties. Our performance obligation is generally to enable subscribers to advertise their business on our website, including such information as a website URL, email address and phone number, as well as other information. Subscription advertising is predominantly sold for a flat fee, for a contracted period of time which is predominately one year or less. Subscription advertising services are generally billed in advance of service. Subscription advertising revenues are recognized on a straight-line basis over the period of the subscription service as efforts are expended evenly throughout the contract period. When prepayments are received, we recognize deferred revenue for the amount of prepayment in excess of revenue recognized until the performance obligation is satisfied.

Other Hotel Revenue. Our other hotel revenue primarily includes revenue from non-TripAdvisor-branded websites, such as www.bookingbuddy.com, www.cruisecritic.com, and www.onetime.com, which primarily includes click-based advertising and display-based advertising revenue. The performance obligations and timing of customer payments for these brands and methods of recognizing revenue are generally consistent with click-based advertising or display-based advertising revenue, as described above.

Non-Hotel Segment

We provide information and services for users to research, book and experience activities and attractions in popular travel destinations both through Viator, our dedicated Experiences offering, and on our TripAdvisor website and applications. We also power travel activities and experiences booking capabilities to users for affiliate partners, including some of the world’s top airlines, hotel chains and online and offline travel agencies. We work with local tour or travel activities/experiences operators (“the supplier”) to provide our users with access to book tours, activities and experiences (“the activity”) in popular destinations worldwide. We generate commissions for each booking transaction we facilitate through our online reservation system. We provide post-booking service to the user until the time of the activity, which is the completion of the performance obligation. Revenue is recognized at the time that the activity occurs. We are an agent in the transaction, under ASC 606, for nearly all of these transactions. We generally collect payment from the user at the time of booking that includes both our commission revenue and the amount due to the supplier. Our commission revenue is recorded as deferred revenue until revenue is recognized, and the amount due to the supplier is recorded to deferred merchant payables on our consolidated balance sheet, until payment is made to the supplier after the completion of the activity. To a lesser extent, we earn commissions from third-party merchant partners, who display and promote our supplier activities on their websites to generate bookings.  In these transactions, where we are not the merchant of record, we generally invoice and receive commissions directly from the third-party merchant partners. Our performance obligation is to allow the third-party merchant partners to display and promote our supplier activities on their website and we earn a commission when users book and complete an activity. Our performance obligation is complete and revenue is recognized at the time of the booking, as we have no post-booking obligations. We recognize this revenue net of an estimate of the impact of cancellations using historical cancellation rates. Contract assets are recognized for commissions that are billable contingent upon completion of the activity. We are an agent in these transactions, under ASC 606.  

We also provide information and services for users to research and book restaurants in popular travel destinations through our dedicated restaurant reservations offering, TheFork, and on our TripAdvisor website and applications. TheFork is an online restaurant booking platform operating on a number of websites (including www.lafourchette.com, www.eltenedor.com, www.iens.nl and www.dimmi.com.au), with a network of restaurant partners located primarily across Europe and Australia. Our bookable restaurants are available on www.thefork.com and on TripAdvisor-branded websites and mobile applications. We primarily generate transaction fees (or per seated diner fees) that are paid by restaurants for diners seated primarily from bookings through TheFork’s online reservation system. The transaction fee is recognized in revenue after the reservation is fulfilled, or as diners are seated by our restaurant customers. Revenue is billed monthly when the transaction fees are payable, which is at the time the diner is seated. To a lesser extent, we also generate subscription fees for access to certain online reservation management services and marketing analytic tools provided by TheFork and TripAdvisor. As the performance obligation is to provide restaurants with access to these services over the subscription period, subscription fee revenue is recognized over the period of the subscription service on a straight-line basis as efforts are expended evenly throughout the contract period. Subscription fees are generally billable in advance of service. When prepayments are received, we recognize deferred revenue for the amount of prepayment in excess of revenue recognized until the performance obligation is satisfied.

In addition, we provide information and services for users to research and book vacation and short-term rental properties, including full home rentals, condominiums, villas, beach rentals, cabins and cottages. Rentals  generates revenue primarily by offering individual property owners and managers the ability to list their properties on our websites and mobile applications thereby connecting homeowners with travelers through a free-to-list, commission-based option or, to a lesser extent, by an annual subscription-based fee structure. These properties are listed on www.flipkey.com, www.holidaylettings.co.uk, www.housetrip.com, www.niumba.com, and www.vacationhomerentals.com, and on our TripAdvisor-branded websites and mobile applications. We earn commissions associated with rental transactions through our free-to-list model from both the traveler and the property owner or manager. We provide post-booking service to the traveler and property owners and managers until the time the rental commences, which is the time the performance obligation is completed. Revenue from transaction fees is recognized at the time that the rental commences. We are an

13


 

agent in these transactions, under ASC 606. We generally collect payment from the traveler at the time of booking that includes our commissions, which is recorded as deferred revenue until revenue is recognized, and the amount due to the property owner, which is recorded in deferred merchant payables on our consolidated balance sheet, until payment is made to the property owner after the completion of the rental. Payments for term-based subscription fees related to online advertising services for the listing of rental properties are generally due in advance.  As the performance obligation is the listing service provided to the property owner or manager over the subscription period, revenue is recognized over the period of the subscription service on a straight-line basis as efforts are expended evenly throughout the contract period. We recognize deferred revenue for the amount of prepayment in excess of revenue recognized until the performance obligation is satisfied. 

Practical Expedients and Exemptions

 

We expense costs to obtain a contract as incurred, such as sales commissions, when the amortization period would have been one year or less.

We do not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which we recognize revenue at the amount to which we have the right to invoice for services performed.

Impact of Adoption of ASC 606

 

The impact of this new revenue recognition guidance on our unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2018 was as follows:

 

 

 

As Reported - ASC 606 March 31, 2018

 

 

Impact of Accounting under ASC 606

 

 

Adjusted - ASC 605 March 31, 2018

 

 

 

(in millions)

 

  Revenue

 

$

378

 

 

$

(4

)

 

$

374

 

  Operating income

 

 

23

 

 

 

(4

)

 

 

19

 

  Income before income taxes

 

 

21

 

 

 

(4

)

 

 

17

 

  Provision for income taxes

 

 

(16

)

 

 

1

 

 

 

(15

)

  Net income

 

 

5

 

 

 

(3

)

 

 

2

 

 

The impact of the new guidance was not meaningful as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2018 for the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet and unaudited condensed consolidated statement of cash flows, respectively.

 

Disaggregation of Revenue

 

We disaggregate revenue from contracts with customers into major products/revenue sources. We have determined that disaggregating revenue into these categories achieves the disclosure objective to depict how the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors. As noted in “Note 12: Segment Information”, our business consists of two reportable segments – Hotel and Non-Hotel. A reconciliation of disaggregated revenue to segment revenue is also included below.  

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31, 2018

 

Major products/revenue sources:

 

(in millions)

 

Click-based advertising and transaction revenue

 

$

189

 

Display-based advertising and subscription revenue

 

 

71

 

Other hotel revenue

 

 

39

 

  Total Hotel Revenue (1)

 

 

299

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-Hotel Revenue (1)

 

 

79

 

  Total Revenue

 

$

378

 

 

(1)

Our revenue is recognized primarily at a point in time for both our Hotel and Non-Hotel segments.

 

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Contract balances

 

The following table provides information about the opening and closing balances of accounts receivables and contract assets from contracts with customers (in millions):

 

 

March 31, 2018

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

Accounts receivable

 

$

269

 

 

$

230

 

Contract assets

 

 

12

 

 

 

-

 

  Total

 

$

281

 

 

$

230

 

Accounts receivable are recognized when the right to consideration becomes unconditional. Contract assets are rights to consideration in exchange for services that we have transferred to a customer when that right is conditional on something other than the passage of time, such as commission payments that are contingent upon the completion of the service by the principal in the transaction. Contract liabilities generally include payments received in advance of performance under the contract, and are realized as revenue as the performance obligation to the customer is satisfied, which we present as deferred revenue on our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet. During the three months ended March 31, 2018, $41 million was recognized as revenue which was included in the deferred revenue balance at the beginning of the period. The difference between the opening and closing balances of our contract assets and deferred revenue primarily results from the timing differences between our performance and the customer’s payment. There were no significant changes in contract assets or liabilities during the three months ended March 31, 2018 related to business combinations, impairments, cumulative catch-up or other material adjustments.

NOTE 4: EARNINGS PER SHARE

Basic Earnings Per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders

We compute basic earnings per share, or Basic EPS, by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. We compute the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the reporting period using the total of common stock and Class B common stock outstanding as of the last day of the previous year end reporting period plus the weighted average of any additional shares issued and outstanding less the weighted average of any common shares repurchased during the reporting period.

Diluted Earnings Per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders

Diluted earnings per share, or Diluted EPS, includes the potential dilution of common equivalent shares outstanding that could occur from stock-based awards and other stock-based commitments using the treasury stock method. We compute Diluted EPS by dividing net income by the sum of the weighted average number of common and common equivalent shares outstanding during the period. We computed the weighted average number of common and common equivalent shares outstanding during the period using the sum of (i) the number of shares of common stock and Class B common stock used in the basic earnings per share calculation as indicated above, and (ii) if dilutive, the incremental weighted average common stock that we would issue upon the assumed exercise of outstanding common equivalent shares, primarily related to stock options and the vesting of restricted stock units using the treasury stock method, and (iii) if dilutive, performance-based and market-based awards based on the number of shares that would be issuable as of the end of the reporting period assuming the end of the reporting period was also the end of the contingency period.

Under the treasury stock method, the assumed proceeds calculation includes the actual proceeds to be received from the employee upon exercise of outstanding equity awards and the average unrecognized compensation cost during the period. The treasury stock method assumes that a company uses the proceeds from the exercise of an equity award to repurchase common stock at the average market price for the reporting period.

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Below is a reconciliation of the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding in calculating Diluted EPS (shares in thousands and dollars in millions, except per share amounts) for the periods presented:

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Numerator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income

 

$

5

 

 

$

13

 

Denominator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted average shares used to compute Basic EPS

 

 

139,312

 

 

 

143,632

 

Weighted average effect of dilutive securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock options

 

 

118

 

 

 

516

 

RSUs/MSUs

 

 

892

 

 

 

569

 

Weighted average shares used to compute Diluted EPS

 

 

140,322

 

 

 

144,717

 

Basic EPS

 

$

0.04

 

 

$

0.09

 

Diluted EPS

 

$

0.04

 

 

$

0.09

 

 

Potential common shares, consisting of outstanding stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and market-based stock units (“MSUs”), totaling approximately 12.0 million shares and 6.4 million shares for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, have been excluded from the calculation of Diluted EPS because their effect would have been antidilutive. In addition, potential common shares, consisting of performance-based awards, totaling approximately 0.4 million shares and 0.1 million shares for three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, for which all targets required to trigger vesting had not been achieved, were excluded from the calculation of weighted average shares used to compute Diluted EPS for those reporting periods.

The earnings per share amounts are the same for common stock and Class B common stock because the holders of each class are legally entitled to equal per share distributions whether through dividends or in liquidation.

NOTE 5: STOCK BASED AWARDS AND OTHER EQUITY INSTRUMENTS

Stock-Based Compensation Expense

The following table presents the amount of stock-based compensation expense related to stock-based awards, primarily stock options and RSUs, on our unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations during the periods presented:

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

 

(in millions)

 

Selling and marketing

 

$

6

 

 

$

5

 

Technology and content

 

 

12

 

 

 

7

 

General and administrative

 

 

11

 

 

 

7

 

Total stock-based compensation

 

 

29

 

 

 

19

 

Income tax benefit from stock-based compensation

 

 

(7

)

 

 

(7

)

Total stock-based compensation, net of tax effect

 

$

22

 

 

$

12

 

During both the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, we capitalized $3 million of stock-based compensation expense as internal-use software and website development costs.  

 

Stock-Based Award Activity and Valuation

2018 Stock Option Activity

During the three months ended March 31, 2018, we granted 611,235 service-based non-qualified stock options under the Company’s 2011 Stock and Annual Incentive Plan, as amended (the “2011 Incentive Plan”). These stock options generally have a term of ten years from the date of grant and typically vest equally over a four-year requisite service period.

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A summary of our stock option activity during the three months ended March 31, 2018, is presented below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted

 

 

Weighted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average

 

 

Average

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise

 

 

Remaining

 

 

Aggregate

 

 

 

Options

 

 

Price Per

 

 

Contractual

 

 

Intrinsic

 

 

 

Outstanding

 

 

Share

 

 

Life

 

 

Value

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in years)

 

 

(in millions)

 

Options outstanding at December 31, 2017

 

 

6,853

 

 

$

52.78

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Granted

 

 

611

 

 

 

41.54

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercised (1)

 

 

(196

)

 

 

28.21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cancelled or expired

 

 

(72

)

 

 

47.80

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Options outstanding at March 31, 2018

 

 

7,196

 

 

$

52.48

 

 

 

6.7

 

 

$

10

 

Exercisable as of March 31, 2018

 

 

3,428

 

 

$

54.81

 

 

 

4.7

 

 

$

5

 

Vested and expected to vest after March 31, 2018 (2)

 

 

7,196

 

 

$

52.48

 

 

 

6.7

 

 

$

10

 

 

(1)

Inclusive of 150,855 of options which were not converted into shares due to net share settlement in order to cover the aggregate exercise price and the required amount of employee withholding taxes. Potential shares that had been convertible under stock options that were withheld under net share settlement remain in the authorized but unissued pool under the 2011 Incentive Plan and can be reissued by the Company. Total payments for the employees’ tax obligations to the taxing authorities due to net share settlements are reflected as a financing activity within the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.

 

(2)

The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur, rather than estimate expected forfeitures as allowed under GAAP and   therefore do not include a forfeiture rate in our vested and expected to vest calculation unless necessary for a performance condition award.

Aggregate intrinsic value represents the difference between the closing stock price of our common stock and the exercise price of outstanding, in-the-money options. Our closing stock price as reported on NASDAQ as of March 31, 2018 was $40.89. The total intrinsic value of stock options exercised was $3 million and $7 million, for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

The fair value of stock option grants under the 2011 Incentive Plan has been estimated at the date of grant using the Black–Scholes option pricing model with the following weighted average assumptions for the periods presented:

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Risk free interest rate

 

 

2.66

%

 

 

1.91

%

Expected term (in years)

 

 

5.45

 

 

 

5.35

 

Expected volatility